Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The Philosophy of Knowledge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Philosophy of Knowledge - Essay Example The evolving nature of knowledge can be considered to be a manifestation of its highly unstable nature where it undergoes frequent changes over time. While this may be the case, knowledge is also a means through which cultures are developed and this is done through the transmission of what is believed by a certain society to future generations. When knowledge is compared to truth, it can be suggested that the latter should be able to withstand the test of time and retain its basic truths (Church, 1962, p.322). Such situations tend to be extremely rare considering that the changes in society and the environment often ensure that opinions concerning different aspects of life often change over time. Truth is what human beings hold to be unchanging and this means that it is essential for it to remain constant in order to ensure its credibility (McGarry 2010, p.8). The argument for the constant nature of truth was the belief, before the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin, it was a common belief in Europe that all creation came into being in seven days. This belief was in line with the predominantly Christian biblical teachings that were prevalent in Europe during this age. All these changed with the development of the development of the theory of evolution and it is now considered a fact that all creatures evolved from more primitive forms over millions of years. What remains to be seen is whether the theory of evolution will continue to be considered true knowledge in the near future.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Sexual assaults Essay Example for Free

Sexual assaults Essay From a Freudian point of view the rape and sexual assaults discussed in this example, stemmed from the impulses from his id which were demanding sexual gratification. Freud may have contended that Tysons id had won control of the available psychic energy coursing through his body, which neither the ego nor the superego could stop or negotiate. This sexual energy and desire from the id arguably overpowered Tysons mind and his focus was to obtain sexual satisfaction. From this perspective other illustrations of Tysons id taking control of his psychic energy are evident when considering his behaviour during his youth. Hoffer, (1998) has noted that he habitually stole from people who had something he wanted, and assaulted others who tried to stop him. In these instances the demands Tysons id forced him to take whatever he wanted, even if it was to the detriment of others. However, it is ironic to note that these impulses from his id which forced him into engaging in this type of behaviour to satisfy its demands were the very same impulses that gained him respect, fame and fortune inside the boxing ring. Arguably, his ids desire to retain the title and maintain the status and respect he now had, facilitated him to achieving a high position in life. Paradoxically this argument lends a little more credence to Horneys theory of inner safety. Arguably, Tyson was indeed being driven by demands from his id in a Freudian sense, but these demands were bound now by the rules and regulations set out by the boxing authorities and this framework provided him with a sense of safety. Boxing protocol ensured that Tysons safety was not under threat and this enabled him to perform his aggression in a controlled, supervised and acceptable manner. As stated earlier Tyson was a victim of bullying. However it was also noted that he reached the stage where he himself became the bully. Younger weaker children were the first targets Tyson chose to assault, but he quickly progressed to older children when he found he could beat them easily. His fighting ability, which was swift and vicious, resulted in him gaining respect throughout the neighbourhood and becoming an accepted member of the gangs. It could be argued from both of the points of view in this discussion that Tyson was using defence mechanisms in order to abate his anxiety. From a Freudian perspective the bullies who taunted Tyson made him feel inferior causing him biological anxiety. The bullying that he suffered resulted in his ego feeling threatened and losing its balance of power, and in order to regain this balance, his defensive reaction was to eliminate the source of the threat. This example of Tyson targeting younger weaker children is a good illustration of Freuds defence mechanism of displacement. Corey, (2001 p72) notes that one way for a person to cope with anxiety is discharge impulses from a threatening object to a safer target. However, Horneys description of the defence mechanism Tyson used here would be slightly different. From this point of view it would be described as compulsive aggression. Accordingly, people who display this type of aggression are making an effort to hide any sign of weakness or fear by moving against people. The compulsive needs of this type of individual according to Horneys theory, is such that they have a need to dominate and control others. ( Fadiman Frager, 1994 p141) It could be argued here that every time Tyson beat a child who taunted him he regained his feeling of safety. Subsequently, each time Tyson felt the need to regain this feeling he repeated the actions. A further reinforcement Tyson may have found from these actions was the added bonus of gaining respect from his peers and becoming an accepted member of his immediate surroundings. Arguably this exact pattern of events brought him success, fame and fortune inside the boxing ring. This huge money earning period of Tysons life enabled him to enjoy a lavish lifestyle. It was noted by (Hoffer, 1998) that Tyson had a passion for collecting expensive possessions. He owned Siberian tigers, cars, fur coats and mansions. From a Freudian point of view Tyson could be said to be fixated in his Anal stage of psychosexual development. This stage of development according to Freuds theory happens between the ages of one and three. An important aspect of this stage is the toilet training of a child. A child learns during this time to control his sphincter and bladder and could find that he is chastised for mistakes or praised for conforming to his parents wishes. The child may pass a bowel movement and feel immensely proud of it he may then seek praise from his parent but feel dejection when he did not receive it. This situation may render the child with feelings of deflation and rejection. Fixation in this stage according to (Corey, 2001) can then occur. Corey, goes on to note that this can manifest in later life as a need to collect possessions for which one can feel proud so that the earlier feelings of deflation and rejection do not reoccur. Arguably though, this aspect of Freuds theory would be difficult to support with empirical evidence. Most people would be unable to recall with any degree of accuracy the toilet training methods employed by their parents. Horneys theory of cultural and environmental factors surrounding a persons childhood having a critical effect on their behaviour in adulthood would be easier to provide evidence for.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Theme and Symbol in Ethan Frome Essay example -- Character Analysis

Divided between the two women, Ethan Frome is a highly confused man. He seeks to find some â€Å"ease and freedom† represented by Mattie, but society would not allow him to do so. Society instead compels him to accept its burden represented for him in the shape of Zeena, although it means the ruin of his life. The social pressure, whether it takes the form of conventional morality or any other forms, offers Ethan blind opposition at every turn, leashing his actions â€Å"like the jerk of a chain† (p.3). Aware that he has not even the money to take Mattie with him to the West, for instance, Ethan starts on foot for Starkfield to ask Andrew Hale, the village carpenter, for an advance on some lumber. In this episode, he is soon intercepted on the way by Mrs. Hale, who, appealing to his sympathy by a few kind words, baffles his attempt at the very moment when his is about to revolt. Throughout the novel, this â€Å"invisible hand† of social pressure is constantly imaged to Ethan as a prison: â€Å"The inexorable facts closed in on him like prison-warders handcuffing a convict. There was no way out-none. He was a prisoner for life.† (p.134). A little bit later in the story, Ethan, watching Mattie's trunk being carried away in a sleigh to the station, has the feeling that â€Å" his heart was bound with cords which an unseen hand was tightening with every ick of the clock.† (p.147). Again he expresses the same emotion later when he says to Mattie as they make the way to the station, â€Å"I'm tied hand and foot, Mattie. There isn't a thing I can do.† (p.158) Because Ethan suffers from inner conflict in his own mind, the group pressure of convention and morality seems to have little, if any, power over him. If, indeed, social force had been involved in h... ...f her mind were as incalculable as the flit of a bird in the branches† (p.46). To Ethan Frome, Mattie is â€Å"his one ray of light† (p.134) which gives meaning to his bleak existence but is to be extinguished by Zeena's cruelty. The image of light is further reinforce by the bright moon. Which is mentioned over and over in the novel. Ethan Frome is the only book Edith Wharton ever wrote that the author's name is readily -and deservedly- associated with, and it has in fact been held in higher esteem than any other of her novels. This book is a brilliant makes a use of imagery and symbolism. The destiny of human existence which Ethan can never solve is more clearly sharpened by Wharton's skillful use of contrasting images and symbols. More significantly, it is by her use of this symbolic imagery that the characterization of the novel can be fully understand.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

MBA Admissions Essays - Look Out World! :: MBA College Admissions Essays

MBA Admissions Essays - Look Out World! Â   Write a candid description of yourself, stressing those personal qualities, assets, and liabilities that you feel will influence your study for an MBA. Describe what you consider to be your most important professional and / or academic achievement to date. Â   If one were to ask my friends to describe me they would describe me as a very pleasant, diverse, active and intelligent woman. I think one of my most distinguishing characteristics is the diversity of experiences I possess. I am a science student with a flair for the arts. I am a woman with technical aptitude and an interest in management. I also have a passion for traveling and understanding different cultures of the world. All these elements have given me a very broad outlook, with varying degrees of knowledge in a range of topics. I strongly believe that although some are not related directly, all these qualities will influence my graduate work. Â   My Engineering degree has given a strong foundation to my analytical skills since civil design involves a lot of long, complex and intricate calculations and the application of basic math skills. Over the past four years, I have been working part-time with my family firm, SnMTech Systems. I am also the co-founder and active member with FOE - Friends of the Environment. I have assisted in the installation of Enterprise-wide Resource Planning (ERP) System at Blotech, a major Engineering Company. More than what I have studied in school and college, it has been these experiences that have shaped the person that I am today. Â   Â   I believe that this unique blend of experiences has made me a woman with an original point of view. This blend has given me a broader perspective to and a good understanding of life and a goal to aim for. Among other things, I have this diversity of experience to offer Utah University. My most substantial accomplishment has been the success of the software upgradation project that I managed at SnMTech Systems Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, where I have been working as a part time Associate Intern - Management Information Systems since 1994. Â   Â   During the first two years of my work at SnMTech, I had an opportunity to observe and work with the existing system being used. Some of the software packages being used were outdated versions.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Anomie Theory

Right off the bat when reading the article it states that it's the most widely read article in sociology. The author Robert K. Merton opens his paper by first challenging certain offenses that were popular in 1938. Most of the theories that Merton has analyzed mentioned â€Å"biological drives†. Some of the theorists view crime as â€Å"biological drives† in which our society comes to terms with restraining it. What I found interesting, Merton doesn't agree with other theorists, he, on the other hand, argues that a person or persons drive for crime is frequently shown to be stemmed from society itself. This is when his theory or argument splits into two parts. The article refers to his â€Å"anomie theory†. This hypothesis of his is looked to be explained why certain parts of societies have increased rates of criminal activity than let's say, the other half of the societies in which they appear to have decreased rates of criminal activity. Merton focuses on the relative emphasis placed on this set cultural goals society has placed as well as the institutionalized norms for achieving these goals of society. It is come to know some certain places in society have a high comparative prominence which is called cultural goals. Also, to have a low corresponding value of the norms or as well some gain the achievement of goals, which increases the rate of crimes. Merton characterizes these societies by using the terms anomie or normlessness, whereas it is explained from â€Å"the goal-seeking behavior†, Merton mentions. An individual is exposed to little commands or in other words law. This turns into a repercussion for persons employing the most beneficial values including that of criminal acts in order to achieve their once again prize. The â€Å"strain† theory Merton discusses in this half of the article argues that some person and persons within a society are being exposed to â€Å"special† pressures that of criminal actions. Merton mentions that while it is urged as well as expected that people strive for financial riches, people of the lower class are prevented from achieving this goal. This leads to individuals to have pressure, but even then they can adapt to the strain or so-called pressures of values. Continuing of Merton briefly discusses why some types of individuals are more likely to respond to strain with crime than others. Merton's strain theory has been the subject of extensive commentary and researches the evidence for his strain theory which is mixed. Certain recent tests of this theory seem to be at it's accurate as well as the anomie theory. The anomie theory proposes that criminal activity is most seen in those who place much emphasis on cultural goals and little on the norms for achieving the goals, meaning to be successful. Before going into the article I made a note that has caught my attention about the author itself. Albert K. Cohen was a student of Robert K. Merton. I just found this to be very intriguing because some of his points or theories have been taken into account in Cohen's articles. Cohen has a particular interest and focus of criminal societies. To narrow it down, Cohen focuses more on the lower-working-class urban gangs of 1950, during that time they were the subject of attention. Cohen in the article poses a question of: â€Å"How can we explain the origin and content of delinquent subcultures?† Since he was a student of Merton as I said before he draws some of Merton's theory to provide his own, collective answer to the question which is often outlined throughout the article. In the first part of his theory, that is being stated in the first section of the article. Cohen provides a well-explained origin of deviant social groups. The second section applies that the theory to explain the origin and contents of man it has to be specified by gender. Cohen focuses on working-class males and urban gangs. While I was reading the parts of the article, I have noted and made some comparisons and contrasts with Merton's strain theory. Similar to Merton, Cohen argues that â€Å"goal blockade† is what causes delinquency. Now Cohen, on the other hand, argues that lower and working class males don't concern themselves with the goal of cultural goals. Other than the obvious of not concerning themselves with achieving this success, they would rather concern themselves with the fulfillment of making it to the higher societal class. The achievement of broader goals referred to the respect from the higher-ups in the financial success aspect of cultural goals. This was noted by Cohen to be crucial because of the difference in goals. It is said in the article that an individual can obtain financial riches through illegal activities such as theft, this is one of Merton's adaptations of innovation. An individual can't steal the status of a higher class, which makes perfect sense since it could lead to a huge consequence, which Cohen discusses throughout the article. The consequence is that the lower and working class often have to evolve to the goal blockade by making an alternative plan. This is how someone, an individual would gain their true success. This is also noted to be very much alike to Merton's adaptations of criminal behavior, in which was explained that these new goals and methods are basically being replaced for the previous goals instead of the new. From reading onward I made the connection that both the lower and working class share hostility towards the middle-class persons. The hostility leads them to set up a status quo that values everything that the apparent middle class doesn't concern itself with. Based on these very theories it is explained that the middle class values private property and respect for an individual. Now, this caught my attention because it made me question his theory. It's suggesting that lower and working class boys don't value such things. Also, in the theory, it gives an example of what I was questioning. The example that was given was that while gangs of some sorts value the destruction and theft of any property probably more towards private property and leading more towards aggression towards others. Cohen then goes onto the explanatory origins and contents of the criminal social group. After getting towards the end of the article it states the definite features of his hypothesis. Theorists have come to the main claim that the goals of criminal persons are not disagreeable to an idea of standard goals as Cohen has explained throughout his theory. Even though there has been a criticism the data shows and tends to often prove and support this argument. All of this information that was given by this theorist Cohen brings a fundamental contribution to criminal law. Anomie Theory Anomie theory is important for explaining whether crime is a normal or abnormal (pathological) social phenomenon (Cartwright, 2011). It describes a lack of social norms, lawlessness and normlessness (Cartwright, 2013). In detail, it is a breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community. This theory was first coined by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist in his book Suicide published in 1897 (Cartwright, 2013). Later on, Robert Merton, the President of American Sociological Association, developed the link between anomie and social structure. Unlike Durkheim, Merton used the notion from Durkheim’s anomie theory and explains that social structure could exert pressure on an individual and directly cause deviance (Cartwright, 2011). This theory is better known as the Anomie-Strain Theory. Furthermore, in 1994, Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld, like Merton, brought more attention to social organization and social institutions instead of focusing on individuals when analysing crimes (Cartwright, 2011), so the Institutional-Anomie Theory was developed. In order to understand the anomie theory better, the developments of this theory from Emile Durkheim to Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld should all be considered. For Emile Durkheim, his main concern about anomie was social solidarity (Cartwright, 2011). Based on this concern, he divided solidarity into two categories: mechanical solidarity, which maintains low adaptation skills; and to the contrary, organic solidarity whose inertia sensitively needs changes (Cartwright, 2013). Durkheim observed that these two groups would co-exist. The reason is that anomie is impossible when solidarity is organic. Their sensitivity to change leads to evolution among this form of labour. Later in 1897, Durkheim pointed out that the suicide rates were due to the dramatic economic changes, such as economic depression and the sudden growth of the economy (Cartwright, 2011). â€Å"According to Durkheim, these periods of anomie –times of normlessness, lawlessness, and unregulated choice – made individuals more susceptible to committing suicide or engaging in deviant behaviour† (Cartwright, 2011, p. ). In this study, Durkheim associated anomie with the influence of a lack of the norms. In Durkheim’s study of anomie theory, two notions should not be neglected. Firstly, Emile Durkheim referred to society much like a functioning organism (Cartwright, 2011), evidence for the theory can be easily found in his referring to the society as â€Å"the social organism† or â€Å"the functions of the central or gan† (Cartwright, 2011, p. 6). In order to maintain the continuation of the organism, each of the integrated parts has to be working well. Secondly, Durkheim discussed crime as an â€Å"abnormal† activity, which indicates that a certain proportion of crimes are normal and happens in most societies, (Cartwright, 2011). f in the steps of Durkheim’s study, Robert Merton described more about the relationship between social structure and anomie theory, later known as the anomie-strain theory. The definition of the word â€Å"strain† in the verb form means to subject to tension or stress. This meaning is very similar to the strain theory. The theory indicates that the social structure of a society may pressure or force the citizens to commit crimes, due to the failure to provide many individuals’ with â€Å"the conventional means necessary to realize those culture goals†, which also means that the individual lacks access to cultural goals, such as money, job, or education (Merton, 1938). In Merton’s publication Social Structure and Anomie, he provides a good example that explains his theory. For example, in the USA, the society’s general goal is wealth; therefore, in order to achieve this certain goal, the institutionalized manner is to be hard-working or obtaining education (Merton, 1938). Based on this theory, Merton identifies five modes of adaptation, including conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion (as cited in Cartwright, 2011, p. 21). According to Merton, innovators are most likely to engage in criminal behaviour, since they may accept the recognition of certain cultural goals but reject achieving the goals in a legitimate way (Merton, 1938). This illegitimacy adjustment as the major concern involves two features (Merton, 1938). Firstly, such antisocial behavior â€Å"by certain conventional values of the culture and by the class structure involving differential access to the approved opportunities for legitimate, prestige-bearing pursuit of the culture goal† (Merton, 1938, p. 27). Secondly, it is the consideration of equal significance. Because of the limitation of legitimate effort, for those individuals with formal education and few economic resources, success is hard to get (Merton, 1938). In addition, Merton declared that the theory he studied was incomplete, since various structural elements were neglected; for example, â€Å"the relevance of cultural conflict for an analysis of culture-goal and institutional-means malintegration† has not yet been examined, and â€Å"the social function performed by illicit responses† has also been omitted (Merton, 1938, p. 30). As for Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld (1995), their study, known as the institutional-anomie theory, focused more on how criminal behavior is affected institutionally, such as by schools, churchs or companies. Messner and Rosenfeld declared that criminology has overly focused on analyzing the behavior of individuals, such as mental illness, but paid less attention on how social organization and institutions influence the behaviour (Rosenfeld & Messner, 1995). Based on the comparison chart that Messner and Rosenfeld established in Crime and the American Dream: an Institutional Analysis, the statistic shows that the United States of America has the highest rates of robbery or homicide among a number of countries (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). The reason is due to â€Å"the crime causing nature of American-style capitalism and its unique cultural goals or aspiration† (Cartwright, 2011, p. 52). Messner and Rosenfield are also concerned about the normal functions of social institutions. The definition of â€Å"institutions† means â€Å"relatively stable sets of norms and values, statuses and roles, and groups and organizations† (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995, p, 60). At this point, Messner and Rosenfeld introduced four major social institutions: political system or polity, economy, institution of family and institution of education (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). Even though these four institutions may not seem directly relevant to crime; however, according to Messner and Rosenfeld, in order to analyse the crime in the United States, the interconnection between these four institutions are central (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). In this study, Messner and Rosenfeld (1995) also talked about the institutional balance of power. Due to the monetary need of every cooperation and institution, the economy â€Å"has come to dominate the other three institutions† (Cartwright, 2011, p52). The devaluation of the economy has overcome the other three major institutions. At last, the dominance of the economy has developed to a very extreme level, and the monetary goals bring out the term â€Å"the ends justify the means† (Cartwright, 2011, p, 52). As the development of anomie theory, from Emile Durkheim to Robert Merton to Messner and Rosenfeld, is discussed, the elements that tie these together is that they all try to figure out the reasons that cause criminal behavior and examines as to why crime happens. This also counts as a similarity between the three anomie theories. In the article â€Å"Cheap Capitalism† written by Hongming Cheng, he characterized cheap capitalism by â€Å"low prices, inferior quality and unsafe condition of goods or services to maximize profits† (Cheng, 2012, p, 254). Cheng also pointed out that the cheap capitalism is â€Å"facilitated by cheap labour and raw materials and, more importantly, associated with degraded morality in the business world† (Cheng, 2012, p, 254). In my opinion, the article provides a good example of and explanation for crime in the non-capitalist countries, such as China. Cheng gives an example about food crime, which involves rampant institutions using cheap and dangerous industrial chemicals in foods (Cheng, 2012). One explanation will be that the food industries provides low-quality food to cheap labourers, since the poor working class cannot afford buying expensive but healthy food (Cheng, 2012). The case is related to the institutional-anomie theory studied by Messner and Rosenfeld (1995). One way to cause crime could be due to the social structure and social institutions. In the article, Cheng also provides a table of scales from 1 (not very important) to 4 (very important) that describes the factors that may lead to and influence the food crime. It turns out that social culture, moral and values got rated 3. 8 out of 4, followed by â€Å"lack of adequate enforcement† that got 3. 6 (Cheng, 2012). From this table, it shows that â€Å"moral anomie is a major factor that associated with food crime† (Cheng, 2012, p, 265). From my perspective, the institutional-anomie theory is connected to this case the most. In conclusion, the development of anomie theory, from Emile Durkheim to Messner and Rosenfeld, provides brilliant ideas and thoughts that explain crime thoroughly. The evidence that supports their theory is solid and valid. Based on this, it makes the theory complete and reasonable.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Lift Every Voice and Sing essays

Lift Every Voice and Sing essays "Lift Every Voice And Sing" is a high-spirited gospel song that was written by the famous black poet and civil rights leader, James Welden Johnson. Performed by Melba Moore and a few others, I downloaded a version of the song to play. Originally in honor to celebrate Lincoln's birthday, it was performed in a Florida school to children who were being educated in a segregated environment. I happen to think it also has something to do with Martin Luther King Jr. and the marches he led in order to overcome discrimination and prejudice. Indeed, this song can be considered uplifting and courageous to the people that think God has left them during their times of trial. Specifically, this message focuses on the hard times of African Americans, during segregation and slavery. The speaker is someone who is trying to be inspirational and uplifting to those who need it. The audience is not only concentrated on blacks that went through or viewed hate crimes, but also to anyone that has felt the t errible burden of intolerance and hatred. The writer of this song entitled it "Lift Every Voice And Sing" because of the fact that he's telling all blacks to do the very same thing. Blacks were told to be quiet when they were slaves; they were there for service. Moreover, blacks were to be seen, not heard, like children. James is telling blacks to speak up, not to be ignored, or disregarded. His plea is to empower the oppressed so that the world is forced to notice the beauty and integrity of you as a person, as a fellow human being. The first stanza and chorus of "Lift Every Voice and Sing" reads: Ring with the harmonies of liberty; Let it resound loud as the rolling sea In this stanza, James is advising blacks to let people know they're here. The lines "Till earth and heaven ring, Ring with the harmonies of liberty;" (1.2-3) encourages blacks to make sure everyone hears what they have to say. It's also telling them that their words can teac...

Monday, October 21, 2019

The eNotes Blog FOR SALE DraculasBirthplace

FOR SALE DraculasBirthplace Heres something you wont find in Craigslists classifieds The writing desk at which Bram Stoker created the bloodcurdling modern myth of Dracula will soon be up for auction. Looking at the ornate desk today, which seems so fitting as the gothic setting for the creation of perhaps the most chilling book in English literature, its hard to believe it was salvaged from near ruin not very long ago. Yes, this artifact, like all good curiosities, has its very own story After Stoker completed Dracula in 1897, he gifted the writing table to his good friend JSR Phillips, editor of the Yorkshire Post. According to an article in that same newspaper, the desk was later passed down at Phillips death to his son ER Phillips. Unfortunately, the younger Phillips wife so disliked the relic that she banished it from the house to rot in the garden for years. It was the Phillips son Guy, grandson of JSR, who saved the desk from complete ruin by taking it with him to London. But though he knew the history of the Dracula desk, Guy then left it behind in that London apartment when he moved away. Its next owners, the Brodericks, had no knowledge of its famous origins until they received a note from Guy Phillips later, explaining its history and hinting at its dark powers. I loathed the Dracula desk. But it is a fact that after leaving it behind, I and my family suffered misfortune after misfortune. I had two coronaries and my wife died suddenly of a stroke. Even after receiving the note, the Brodericks almost relegated the desk to destruction, casting it off to their neighbors the Yulls. At this point, the desk was in such bad shape that Mrs. Yull very nearly cast it off to a bonfire. It was only saved by her husband, who insisted it be put in his study and used as his computer desk. Interestingly, it was at the Dracula desk that Yull wrote his first book, a novel about Nazi fascination with the occult. Eventually, the antique made its way into caring hands. As of today the desk has been restored to more than its original glory by master furniture artist Mark Brazier-Jones, whose restorations can be found at none other than The Louvre and The Victoria Albert Museum. He explains his reimagining of the Dracula desk below. Even as a new desk, in its day, this was a modest item of furniture, a place for a man to work, and yet possessing a noble honesty.  I wanted to keep the desk complete and intact, to save all its scars and broken varnish, this history alive with its gnarled texturesI decided to attach, via callipers and clasps the necessaries to regain functionality.   To this I have also embroidered imagery appropriate to the great mans inspirations and imaginings.   I visualize Stoker sat pen to paper contemplating a moonlit rose garden, breathless milk white cleavage and blood soaked lace.   All the fixtures and fittings I have created are in bronze and burnished steel. He has also leather lined two secret compartments I have devised (the position of which will only be revealed to the final owner of the desk) The face panel of each drawer is acid etched through to copper and nickel layers.   The effect is to subtly represent a misty tableau of Whitby Abbey by moonlight, surrounded by gravestones and bats.   Over these drawer fronts are five bronze handles, each one different.   On the lower left, a bat, to the lower right, a savage hound (in Stokers book Dracula arrived in Whitby as a giant dog).   The three upper drawers consist of scrolling rose thorns and buds. The interiors are lined in deep buttoned blood red velvet.   The baroque rose motif is used again where they seem to crawl up and across the table top frame giving the feeling time has stopped like an overgrown grave. So, gone is the humble and battered desk of Stokers time, replaced by an ornate piece of art that certainly lives up to the gothic nature of its history. Hopefully some of the desks mysterious powers remain intact beneath all those coats of varnish, least of which is its uncanny ability to escape bonfires and garbage heaps. The Dracula desk can be yours, courtesy of the Profiles in History Hollywood Auction for a mere $60,000 to $80,000. Look for it on sale between December 15th-16th. Happy Halloween eNoters!

Sunday, October 20, 2019

A Girl Making Bikes Fly Professor Ramos Blog

A Girl Making Bikes Fly I never imagined that a girl like me would be on a dirt bike, flying up in the air and racing against a bunch of boys. I never thought I could do it or thought I had it in me to be so fearless, or so strong. When everyone thinks of riding motorcycles or doing anything dangerous they think that it’s a man doing it. I was a girl who weighed 120lbs and had never ridden my life. Growing up my dad and my older brother both had dirt bikes, and every year took trips out to the desert when riding season came around, and every year I wanted to go with them, but they wouldn’t let me. I would always ask my dad if I could get a bike of my own, but he never wanted his fragile precious daughter to ride a motorbike and hurt herself. When I got older and was able to make decisions on my own, a boyfriend I had at the time, had a dirt bike and would go to a track that was nearby and ride or race when they had racing events. One day he invited me out to the track to watch a race. I had never been to a track before or even knew they were around. When we got there, he explained to me there were a few different tracks that had different levels. There was the beginner, intermediate and the main track. The main track was the hardest and had the biggest jumps, and these were the kind of jumps that if you didn’t land where you were supposed to, you were most likely going to land in the hospital. When I got out of the truck I was so excited, all I could hear was the motors. These people were going as fast as they could, trying to pass each other and souring through the air jumping these huge jumps, and as they went around turns dirt was flying from their back tires. I had never seen anything like it, other than on th e tv.   Out with all of the them, I saw this bad ass chick riding a dirt bike jumping all the same jumps they were, I thought that was so awesome, I wanted to go out there so bad and ride with her. They all made it look so easy, and I thought if she could do it, so could I. I was so stuck on that day, literally two weeks later I went out and got a dirt bike, a CRF 250. Now, the first time I rode it was definitely not on the track or else I would’ve been murdered from getting ran over by everyone riding, or just hurt myself because I had no idea what I was doing. So, we took the bikes up to some land his parents owned, and he began to teach me. I started off slow, and when I say slow I mean I was totally afraid to take my feet off the ground and go.   Plus, the bike was tall and heavy, so I was on my tip toes trying to keep it up, I probably looked like a teeter totter. If you don’t have the muscle memory, or just muscle in general, its really easy to tip over. So, there was a lot of falling down without even going anywhere. Eventually, I got a hang of taking my feet off of the ground and at least moving. We went to his parents land a few more times to practice so that when It came time to go to the track I could at least ride without kil ling myself. When it came time to go to the track I was so nervous. As you can imagine, I started on the beginner’s track. The beginners track was the easiest, it was smaller than the rest and all the jumps were tabletops. Tabletops are exactly how they sound, they look like tables, theyre jumps where you could jump on top of it, or jump the whole thing and land in the landing. Well, I rolled over them, as these little kids on their tiny bikes flew by me like I was standing still. I was definitely a fish out of water. While I had my boyfriend on his bike riding next to me yelling out â€Å"lean†! or â€Å"Faster†! encouraging me to ride better. One of the next times we went, I finally built up the courage to go faster over a jump and I actually got the bike off of the ground. I ran to my boyfriend and yelled â€Å"I finally did it†. Now, it might have just been a few inches off the ground, but I was so happy. We started to go a lot more and I would practice and practic e. Eventually, I was able to jump the whole jump! I was obsessed with the rush. After going so much, I was able to ride the whole beginners track and was ready to move on to the intermediate track which was   harder. On that track I had to start over again, rolling jumps and slowly turn without tipping over. Sometimes, I would get frustrated from not being able to jump the jumps since they were a lot bigger, there was a lot more people, and the track was more strategic..   The biggest jumps on that track were both tabletops, one was about 30 ft and the other was a little bigger. I tried to jump them but would end up just jumping on top of the face of it, too afraid of going so fast and didn’t want to hurt myself. My boyfriend told me that if I wanted to jump it, I was going to have to go faster, to get it out of second gear and pin it, so that’s what I did. I came at the jump in third gear and cleared it! I eventually ended up clearing both the big jumps and was able to ride the   whole rest of the track without a breeze. I fell in love with it so much, I started loading up my bike up and go to the track by myself. One day I heard there was going to be a race held at the track, so I decided to enter it. I entered men’s beginner. I was so nervous that day and the days before it. I remember gearing up, riding my bike to the starting gate, almost having a heart attack.   But I was ready, the gates went down and off we went. I rode as fast as I could I jumped all of the jumps and finished all five laps, I felt so accomplished, I ended up last, but I still felt accomplished. I did not care at all that I got last, all I wanted to do is say I raced and finished! A few month later   ended up in another race, signing up for the men’s beginners   and women’s beginners . In men’s I ended up beating one of the guys. I actually almost landed on him because he didn’t jump one of those big table tops. He should’ve pinned it. He wasn’t too happy that I beat him, but I sure was. And I ended up getting first in the women’s race. Now whenever I tell anyone I rode dirt bikes they look at me funny, because they would have never expected me â€Å"a girl† to do anything so crazy, or dangerous. But they also thought it was pretty awesome. I proved that I could do anything I wanted to do, even if i am a girl. Thanks to that bad ass chick I saw out there riding, I became one myself. Sorry Dad, I’m not so fragile after all.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Impact of Milk and Dairy Products on the Health Research Paper

Impact of Milk and Dairy Products on the Health - Research Paper Example eople seek to maintain a healthy lifestyle for themselves within their busy day-to-day life schedule. In this context, the eating habits and diet followed by individuals is considered a crucial point of discussion. Notably, people take food to fulfil the recommended nutrition requirements by the body. According to Ludke, Phillip, and Obermiller these requirements are fundamental to maintain a healthy and sustainable body. However, for different people, the intake of the recommended milk intakes could seem low, yet Michaelson, et al reveal that even at low intakes, D-galactose causes changes in the human body similar to natural aging in animals. Evidently, the health of any individual is directly or indirectly motivated with understanding the reactions of their bodies to different milk and dairy products and their food habit. In general, the diet involves two forms, which include vegan food and animals-based food products. Vegan foods involve the food items that are directly sourced f rom plants while the animal-based products are obtained from animals such as meat, fish, and on some occasions, daily products. Based on Blackburn (2014), the issue regarding the difference in animal-based products and plant-based products has been a topic of wide debate. Correspondingly, the aim of this particular study is to gain a better comprehension of the concept of plant milk.For the longest time, the consumption of milk has been common amongst both the young and the old universally given its perception as a dietary behaviour .

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Benefits of Digital Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

The Benefits of Digital Marketing - Essay Example Most organizations seem to be heading towards digital marketing since it is proving to more effective as compared to other methods of marketing (Thomas, & Housden, 2011). Digital marketing refers to the marketing and promotion of goods and services through the internet and other digital means such as television advertisement, computers, digital billboards, Smartphones and any other devices that have the ability to combine sound and images to deliver a certain message. Digital marketing enables the organizations to engage themselves effectively with the customers in a manner that is cost-effective, timely and usually relevant. In addition, digital marketing brings the customers closer to the organization. Some digital means such as internet marketing gives the customer a chance to give his view over a certain product or services or even suggest what they might need to be done to increase their satisfaction. This is important since it makes customers feel they are part of the organizat ion and that they are being considered as important stakeholders (John and Jones, 2009). Digital marketing presents the organization with numerous opportunities to expand their operations and gain a competitive advantage over their competitors (Henderson, 2005). Apart from improving the relationship with its customers, there are numerous other opportunities that an organization can realize from digital marketing. This essay is a report on an investigation of the opportunities to an organization that chooses a digital approach to market its products and services. The organization to be investigated is Walmart. Background of the organization Wal-Mart Stores Inc is a retail store based I the United States of America. It has a global presence operating in about 15 countries worldwide. It is a public corporation and is ranked third among the top public corporations in the world after Exxon Mobil Corporation and Royal Dutch Shell. Its shares were first traded on the New York Stock Exchang e in the year 1972. No other retail store in the world is larger than Wal-Mart. In addition, in terms of private employers, Wal-Mart ranks first with more than two million employees in all its stores worldwide. Wal-Mart, a family-controlled company is among the most valuable companies in the world Walton’s family controls 48% of the company shares. Sam Walton founded the company in the year 1962 and then it was incorporated in the year 1969 (Walmart, 2012). The company offers a wide range of products in all its stores worldwide. For instance, the company is known to be the largest grocery store in the United States of America. It also sells household items such as furniture and utensils, electronics, jewelry, clothing, baby products, beverages, beauty items as well as pharmaceutical products. In addition, the company also offers a number of services. Among the services include; photo services, paint mixing, and Marlin travels. In addition, the company has a regal nail, salon, and spa, a program that offers services such as manicure, pedicure as well as nail care services (Walmart, 2012). The company offers its products and services to a wide range of customers. It targets the youths, the old as well as children. This is a strategy that has helped it gain a large share if the market. It offers almost anything that people from different age groups are likely to buy. It has a marketing strategy that has been of much benefit to its operation and that has contributed to its global growth making it one of the biggest companies in the globe (Walmart, 2012). For instance, it offers its products and services at a relatively lower price as compared to its competitors.  

Canada's Immigration Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Canada's Immigration Policy - Essay Example There is also apparent shift in the profile of immigrant source countries in the past several years. Added to this is the fact that more and more people are moving from one place to another worldwide and the perceptible competition in the international economy to attract skilled workers. Movement of people across continents has been a global trend during the advent of long distance travel. Reasons behind this phenomenon are various. These include escaping political, economic, environmental persecution and problems. For some families, the more pressing reasons can be search for better opportunities and safer, more secure living conditions. Given the availability of manpower resources in the different parts of the world and the surplus of families applying immigrant status in Canada, the problem of sustaining the country's economy seems to be solved. However, the process of immigration is not as simple. There must be appropriate and efficient governmental and provincial policies to facilitate this process. This is the function of the Citizenship and Immigration Canada: to draft a structural framework and policies for handling immigration issues of the country. This paper aims to assess these immigration policies and their i... Section 7 (2) of Canada's Immigration Act of 1978 provides an estimate of the total number of immigrants, refugees and other non-immigrants status who will be given permission to settle in Canada. The responsibility of selecting immigrants and refugees and their number for every province, except for Quebec which has the only selection powers, lies on this annual immigration plan (CIC "Laws and Policies"). The proposed Immigration and Refugee Protection Act called Bill C-11 will provide the Citizenship and Immigration Canada the needed implements to ensure public safety and security in relation to the admission of immigrants in the country. This can be achieved by setting new admission criteria and delegating authority to arrest law-breakers and security threats (CIC "The Immigration System"). The other side of the above provisions is the important delivery of the following commitments of facilitating entry to legitimate immigrants and refugees. First is the change of selection priority using the assessment of skills and experience of workers over their current occupations. Second is the focus on reunification of families and protection of refugees. Third is the improved Temporary Foreign Worker Program for the simplification and efficiency of processing of skilled workers and permission of spouses to work. Last is efficient transition of qualified temporary workers from temporary to permanent residents (CIC "Laws and Policies"). The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act of Canada or IRPA was established in 2001. The act has a provision for a consultation between the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration and the provincial governments regarding refugee protection policies and programs to include the determination of the number of foreign nationals

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The role of social media in the 2011 Japanese disaster Dissertation

The role of social media in the 2011 Japanese disaster - Dissertation Example This is simply because the media are always after of informing the public of the great risk involved nd the needed recovery (Miles and Morse, 2007). The world witnessed such event due to the availability of live coverage and actual footage of the disaster’s destructive force. In situation like this, the media are the most important sources of information. They eventually have pervasive power to disseminate information to keep everyone highly informed about things that matters to the entire humanity. For many decades, media have remarkably improved and evolved due to its vibrant dominance in imparting information throughout the world. Their scope of spreading the right information has reached not just within a certain place but today it has remarkably moved over in the entire world. The media have remarkably become among of the most important tools for public relations activity and news coverage (Courtright and Slaughter, 2007). In the midst of advanced information technology, the ultimate goal of the media is to aggressively scatter information from one place to another in a fast pace. In fact, people are bombarded with information daily because of the capacity of the media to transform certain information to be relevant to them. People are always looking forward to the right information and they always expect to have it from the media. In particular, this paper tries to discuss the role of social media in the 2011 Japanese disasters such as earthquake and tsunami. The role of television One of the oldest technologies invented by human is television. Today, in wherever part of the world, it is one of the most important sources of information and entertainment of the people. Television has become the major part of the daily lives of... One of the Japanese in an interview told the media about his horrible experience during the earthquake and its series of aftershock. ‘I have witnessed how strong the magnitude of the earthquake was. The whole building was already moving like a cradle does.’ Due to this coverage of the media, people from other parts of the world were given enough idea how horrible was the said experience. They were given the right and even detailed information how strong was the magnitude of that earthquake plus they were provided with the actual idea of the tsunami through a live aerial video footage. In the midst of 2011 Japan disasters, it is evident that television has become one of the most important sources of information. For instance, it is through television news reports that individuals have been informed about their family relatives abroad especially those in Japan. Specifically, television has become one important instrument that could be used for precautionary measures and monitoring of hazards behaviours of the people (Morris, 2005). The television broadcasted significant news reports from Japan and these specifically try to update concerned individuals about the ongoing progress of disaster among the Japanese. For instance, the television has become the channel of information how Japan had correspondingly attempted to solve the issue in facing the aftermath of the disaster. It is therefore clear that television has the potential to trigger emotion by simply trying to give visual details of specific information. People may not be focusing on the opinion of the news report but they are actually after of what they see. Through the live telecast of tsunami in Japan, people from around the world had enough information about the potential destructive forces of nature.

Stasi Football Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Stasi Football - Essay Example Throughout the course of history mankind has seemingly been guided by a sense of competition. Overtime, however, competition has evolved from a sense of survival to a source of pride and achievement. Even though cultures from all across the world have differing values and even languages, having a competitive nature is a value of the human spirit that can connect us all. Through the development of organizations such as the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Association of Football Federation (FIFA), platforms were created to connect people internationally in innocuous sporting competitions. The growth of nations competing in sport amongst each other brought with it the ability for countries express their national pride. In Germany’s case, post World War II, sporting spectacles such as these were significantly important in the rekindling of a sense of national identity. The power of sport was epitomized in the 1954 FIFA World Cup Final in which the heavi ly favored Hungarian soccer team lost to West Germany’s national team. The symbolic victory, which became known as the â€Å"Miracle of Berne†, evoked a surge of euphoria all over West Germany. Not only did this victory lift up a nation that had been both economically and spiritually shattered by the war, but also it caused the sport to become a fixated symbol in West German culture.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The role of social media in the 2011 Japanese disaster Dissertation

The role of social media in the 2011 Japanese disaster - Dissertation Example This is simply because the media are always after of informing the public of the great risk involved nd the needed recovery (Miles and Morse, 2007). The world witnessed such event due to the availability of live coverage and actual footage of the disaster’s destructive force. In situation like this, the media are the most important sources of information. They eventually have pervasive power to disseminate information to keep everyone highly informed about things that matters to the entire humanity. For many decades, media have remarkably improved and evolved due to its vibrant dominance in imparting information throughout the world. Their scope of spreading the right information has reached not just within a certain place but today it has remarkably moved over in the entire world. The media have remarkably become among of the most important tools for public relations activity and news coverage (Courtright and Slaughter, 2007). In the midst of advanced information technology, the ultimate goal of the media is to aggressively scatter information from one place to another in a fast pace. In fact, people are bombarded with information daily because of the capacity of the media to transform certain information to be relevant to them. People are always looking forward to the right information and they always expect to have it from the media. In particular, this paper tries to discuss the role of social media in the 2011 Japanese disasters such as earthquake and tsunami. The role of television One of the oldest technologies invented by human is television. Today, in wherever part of the world, it is one of the most important sources of information and entertainment of the people. Television has become the major part of the daily lives of... One of the Japanese in an interview told the media about his horrible experience during the earthquake and its series of aftershock. ‘I have witnessed how strong the magnitude of the earthquake was. The whole building was already moving like a cradle does.’ Due to this coverage of the media, people from other parts of the world were given enough idea how horrible was the said experience. They were given the right and even detailed information how strong was the magnitude of that earthquake plus they were provided with the actual idea of the tsunami through a live aerial video footage. In the midst of 2011 Japan disasters, it is evident that television has become one of the most important sources of information. For instance, it is through television news reports that individuals have been informed about their family relatives abroad especially those in Japan. Specifically, television has become one important instrument that could be used for precautionary measures and monitoring of hazards behaviours of the people (Morris, 2005). The television broadcasted significant news reports from Japan and these specifically try to update concerned individuals about the ongoing progress of disaster among the Japanese. For instance, the television has become the channel of information how Japan had correspondingly attempted to solve the issue in facing the aftermath of the disaster. It is therefore clear that television has the potential to trigger emotion by simply trying to give visual details of specific information. People may not be focusing on the opinion of the news report but they are actually after of what they see. Through the live telecast of tsunami in Japan, people from around the world had enough information about the potential destructive forces of nature.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Strategy Report of Tesco Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Strategy Report of Tesco Case Study - Essay Example Although Tesco concentrated on the core growth of the company during the 50s and 60s, apart from organic growth, they also grew through acquisitions. They increased their market share at low cost as they concentrated in opening stores in and around London. The organic growth represents the long-term strategy of the company and also its core strength and vitality. The number of stores grew and they acquired cost leadership but cost leadership comes with disadvantages (Porter, 1979). Very low cost may take loyal customers away and it may also start losing revenues, which is what happened to Tesco. It then changed its strategy to increase its market share – price reduction and centralized buying. Thereafter Tesco concentrated on growth based on four factors. While UK was their core market, they also expanded internationally. Apart from market development, they also focused on product development as they became as strong in non-food products as in food. Besides, they also introduced new retailing services. So their strategy was both market and product development. This is how they penetrated into the market and increased their market share. In their overseas expansion, they adopted a localized approach where they took into account the local culture, local suppliers and ways of working. They also recognized that each individual was different and hence adopted the multi-format strategy. They focused on a few markets which helped them gain competitive advantage and then find the direction for growth and development. During the 1990s Tesco concentrated on national market development through product innovation. They attracted and retained customers through different innovative strategies. To retain loyal customers they introduced loyalty cards; to attract a new segment they started online shopping and thereby created differentiation in their service offerings. It was the same market but with the help of technology they could

Enzyme Catalysis Essay Example for Free

Enzyme Catalysis Essay Enzymes catalyze nearly all biochemical reactions in living cells (Hein, Best, Pattison, and Arena, 2005). As a catalyst, they regulate the chemical reactions by lowering the needed activation energy (Sackheim and Lehman, 1998). Catalysts facilitate chemical reaction but are not consumed, thus, can be used all over again. This function of enzymes is directly dependent on their three-dimensional structures and on the variables that affect their stereochemistry. It was believed that all enzymes are protein in nature but several findings showed that certain ribonucleic acids (RNAs) have enzymatic function (Hein et. al. , 2005). A typical organism has a thousand of biological simple or conjugated enzymes. A simple enzyme is made up of amino acid units while a conjugated one has both protein and non-protein parts that are called apoenzyme and coenzyme respectively (Hein et. al. , 2005). The substrate or substance by which the enzyme will act upon binds at the enzyme’s active site. This active site is about 1-5% of the total surface area of the enzyme (Hein et. al. , 2005). Catalysis follows that is usually describe as formation of enzyme (E) and substrate (S) complex, then, E-S complex decomposes to yield the product and the enzyme. Enzyme-catalyzed reactions are affected by several factors. This may be due to the variables effect on the stereochemistry of the enzyme and kinetics consideration. For instance, temperature affects the rate of all chemical reactions. The higher the temperature, the faster the chemical reaction takes place. However, enzymes coagulate in higher temperatures while lower temperatures results to low reaction rate. Thus, a particular enzyme best functions at its optimum temperature (Sacheim and Lehman, 1998). Concentration on the other hand, favors faster rate of chemical reaction. An increase in substrate concentration, hence, leads to a faster reaction until to the point wherein the enzyme is saturated by substrate. Moreover, every enzyme has an optimum pH range where it can function best (Sackheim and Lehman, 1998). Slight pH changes affect the polarity of the amino acid backbone of the enzyme resulting to changes in its catalytic function. In this simulation experiment, the catalytic capability of a hypothetical enzyme at different environmental conditions was investigated. The effect of temperature, pH, and substrate concentration on its optimal catalytic function were taken into consideration. In addition, the optimal temperature and optimal pH of the hypothetical enzyme were also determined. Moreover, the relationship between the enzyme concentration and the reaction rate was also explored. Procedure The spectrophotometer equipment was used in the simulation experiment in order to measure the amount of the product formed by the enzymatic reaction. The spectrophotometer is equipped with wavelength of light adjustment within 300-700 nanometre range, and percent transmittance (T) or absorption (A) of light by the sample. In addition, six different substrates labeled from A to F and six different enzymes also labeled from A to F were provided. The wavelength setting for each substrate was indicated on the vial and the clock above the substrate vials were used in setting the wavelength selector and in taking the time of the reaction respectively. Temperature, pH scale, a pipette, and a cleaning button were also made available. The substrate A and the enzyme A were used all throughout the simulation experiment. Optimal PH Five milliliter of enzyme A was added to 25 mL of substrate A and the spectrophotometer was set at 430 nanometer wavelength. This was done for every sample for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 pH values. The absorption for each sample was measured within one minute and 25Â ° temperature. Then, the graphical representation of data was made by plotting pH values against absorption values. Optimal Temperature Five millilitre of enzyme A was added to 25 mL of substrate A. This was done for 10Â °, 20Â °, 30Â °, 40Â °, 50Â °, 60Â °, 70Â °, and 80Â ° temperature values. The spectrophotometer was set at 430 nanometre wavelength and each sample was maintained with pH 8 value. Also, one minute absorption reading was allotted for every sample. Then, the temperature values were plotted against absorption values. Reaction Rate At this part of the simulation experiment, two mixtures of substrate A were prepared. The first sample was prepared by adding 5 mL of enzyme A into 25 mL of substrate A while the other sample was made by adding 25 mL of subtrate A with 15 mL of enzyme A. The spectrophotometer was set at 430 nanometre wavelength and the absorption reading for each sample was done for every 10 seconds within 2 minutes. The pH of each sample was maintained at pH 8 value. Finally, the graphical representation of time and absorption was made for each sample.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Perspectives Of Strategic Change Management

Perspectives Of Strategic Change Management There is one quote from Heraclitus that people frequently use when talking about business, the only constant is change itself. Change is a key feature to business environment nowadays, the ability to strategically manage change is often perceived as one of the core competencies of flourishing organizations (Burnes, 2004, Okumus and Hemmington, 1998).In the face of globalization, innovation of technology and economic fluctuations (Burnes B. , 2004), new business models and appropriate strategic responses have to be formulated in order to manage uncertainty, variability and ambiguity (Clayton et al., 2005) within the context of what DAveni(1995) called hyper-competition. However, current theories and approaches to change management are massive (Armenakis Bedeian, 1999)and often contradictory, regarding the complexity of change and significant differences in perspectives towards it (Burnes, 2004; By, 2005). Even though, it seems that aconsensushas been reached that internally or externallydriven changes are occurring regardless of shape, form or size (Burnes, 2004; Carnall, 2003; Kotter, 1996; Luecke, 2003),henceinfluence everyorganization in every industry. This articlewill critically review part of the key theories and approaches concerning organizational structure and culture, andtry to apply the frameworks discussedinto a case study to see whether they are consistent with empirical evidences. Diagnosis: Change and Managing Change Definition of Change From the origin of the concept, change is defined by Oxford English Dictionary as the act or instance of making or becoming different. It is often referred to as the movement from a current state toward a future state (George Jones, 1996). In his Management textbook, Robins defines change as an alteration in structure, technology, or people. (1994, p. 381)In this definition, structure refers to alteration in structural variables in terms of complexity, formalization, degree of centralization, etc. Technological aspect of change is related to methods or equipment involved. People, as the third concern in change, looks at theaspect of modification in attitudes, perceptions, values, or behavior (Nagaike, 1997).Taking into account the nature of both strategy and change, strategic change isdescribed as distinctionin organizations alignment with their external environmentin the shape, form, or state over a certain period of timescale(Van de Ven Poole, 1995; Rajagopalan and Spreitze, 1996 ).The alignment here denotes the fundamental pattern of present and planned resource deployments and environmental interactions that indicates how the organization will achieve its objectives(Hofer Schendel , 1978, p. 25). In thestrategic level, Pettigrew (1985)argues that within an organization, changes occurs under different situations, ranging from commercial events,to managerialinsight, options and actions, which indicate a classification both on macro and micro perspective. Managers, see the internal setting of change consists connections with structure, culture, power, and levels of control. The relevant parts of the environment (Schien, 1985)had to be re-evaluated in order to check.Change is a continuous anddistinctivefeature of organizational life, both operationally and strategically (Burnes, 2004).As a result, corporate strategy cannot be taken out fromorganizational change (Rieley Clarkson , 2001). Strategic Change Management The term strategic change management is very popular amongacademic articles together with newspapers and magazines. Joan Magretta and Nan Stone (2002) point out that coping with various changes is one of the most challenging tasks in the management arena. Moreover, comments of influential management gurus such as Peter Drucker who suggest that organizations have to command change, rather than simply reacting to it stimulated much interest in this very topic (1995). Strategic change management is defined as the process of managing the implementation of alteration in organizational strategies,by which an organization achieveseffective changes in objectives, performances, relations, procedures and organisms (Bridges, 1991), gets to its future state and attains its vision for competitive advantage. Via a process characterized as sensegiving (Gioia Chittipeddi), a vision for change is created and then disseminated(Whetten, 1984) to peple whoplay the change agents role to reach the created vision. Everett Rogers (1995) described change agents as figures with one foot in the old world and one in the new creators of a bridge across which others can travel.Strategic change management enables change agents (Weick Quinn, 1999) andother stakeholders of theorganization to access to the effective strategiesand allow for tryouts in redesigning the organization s image and identity (Mintzberg, 1989)and accomplish the new vision. Types of Change How change is perceived varies in related literature: somehas regarded it asexecuted from top-down whileothers bottom-up, some sees it an emergent phenomenon while others think it s planned (Lewin, Field Theory in Social Science, 1951); different scholars have described it as incremental, punctuated and continuous (Burnes B. , 2004) Different kinds of change call for different strategies to successfully effect and make a difference to the way things are done around here which referred to overcoming resistance to implementing organization change. Before getting into the details of managing change, it s helpful to review the types of change in organizations and then start to look at specific approaches toward change. Planned and Emergent Change Sometimes changeis classified as planned,which isrationally embarked upon and directed by organizations (Burnes B. , 2004). The term of planned change was first mentioned by psychologist Kurt Lewin (1947),to describe change as deliberate,and a product of rational thinking and actions (McGreevy, 2008). Planned change may as well be called blueprint, top-down, rational, linear change with the need for focus on revolutionary or transformational change (Hayes, 2010), and also be referred to as episodic change as opposed to continuous change (Weick Quinn, 1999). Strategically speaking, planned change s more termed second-order change, often encompassessubstitution of certain strategy with another as well as a significant survival of crisis and take into account the multiple consequences of any such changes (Buchanan Boddy, 1992)in order to distinguish from the change of doing better in what we already do (Watzlawick et al., 1974). In contrast, change sometimes is quiteunplanned. Thiskind of change is recognized as emergent change, which is ongoing and is an unpredictable process of aligning and realigning to a turbulent environment (Burnes B. , 2004). Emergent change occurs spontaneously, involving gradual process of continuous adjustment, cumulative effortmodifications in work and social context that people improvise and learn in daily basis (Hayes, 2010). Also indicatedas incremental or first order change, emergent change has an importantfeature that concerns the fact that people frequently adjusting and correcting thoughts and knowledge they obtain from internal or externalenvironments, which can accumulate and amplify then create significant changes (Weick Quinn, 1999). As discussed frequently in organizational development literature, which followed the work of Lewin (Cummings Huse , 1989), the difference between planned and emergent change helps clarify the school of thoughtsondevelopment of organizations and developmentof long-term organizationalgoals (Naderi, 2010), which is agreed with the strategic thinking of change management.Instead of being a fixed, coherent, or well-ordered process, organizational change is chaotic or uncontrolled most of the time (Iles Sutherland, 2001), often involving emergent or non-linear elements and the consequences of uncertainty andchance (Dawson, 1996). The term strategic change then, is the explanation of the magnitude of change in structure, culture, recognizing the second order effects of these changes (Pettigrew, 2000). Developmental, transitional and transformational change Change mayas well be viewed from the perspective of frequency and scope (Iles Sutherland, 2001). Ackerman (1997)outlines three types of most frequentchange in organizational literature: developmental,which is change that augments or modifiespresentfacets of an organization, highlighting on the enhancement of skills or processes in order to maintain competitive; transitional,intrusive as it bring about completely new processes or procedures to the organization. Examples of transitional change includes corporate restructuring, merger, acquisitions, new product or service designs, and instigating new technologies; and transformationalchangewhichrequires a fundamental redefinition of the organization and some of its key features including a innovative definition of the business, a different strategic orientation, oandsignificant change in terms of structure, processes, and corporate culture (Dunphy Stace, 1993). Theories in change literature are more concerned with developmental and transitional change, leaving transformational change as a difficult and unsolved when implementation is under consideration. Burnes(2004) has a slightly different classification of change, in the need to consider strategically concerning the internal and external environment, which includes:incremental, with separateorganizational segments responding progressively and independently to one problem or goal at a time; punctuated equilibrium, with evolution through relatively greater span of time of stability punctuated by shorter bursts of revolutionary change; and continuous transformational change, with the organization continuously aligning to their environment which leads to more organized management of strategic change. Cultural Perspective If real change is to occur in organizations, it has to happen at the cultural level. Culture has long been a key factor in organizational change literature. As early as the 1950s, psychologist Jaques wrote about cultural influence in a changing factory for the first time(1952). Though there is no consensus on definition, the shared values and shared patterns of understanding(Schien, 1985)embedded in the meaning of culture are at the core of organizational change.In fact, Schien s definition of culture best represents functionalist school of cultural approaches to change. He defines culture of a group as the collective or shared learning of that unit as it develops its capacity to survive in its external environment and to manage its own internal affairs (1990, p. 58). It is stated by scholars that to create effective and powerful change, organizations and individuals have toface, cultivate or challenge core cultural values, thenparticipants of the organization come up against a overwhelming change in perceptionthusturn to another direction(Dunphy Stace, 1993). Then in this sense, two steps have to be taken when we look at culture in terms of change management. First, the resistance of change from the existing culture, which requires anexplicitcomprehension of the corporate culture. The diagnosis of current culture will determine the second step, which how to change the culture and implement change at a strategic level. Johnson and Scholes: Cultural web The cultural web is a good diagnostic tool for ?looking at corporate culture. (See Figure 1) The paradigm in the center of the web is the set of core beliefs, which maintains the unity of the culture. The petals includedsoft aspects such assymbols, routines, political processes and hard counterparts as structures and control systems. They are theculture sexplicitexpressions of the impact of the paradigm(Johnson Scholes, 1999). Cultural web not only recognize current cultural layouts but alsoable to map future culture required by change. But to be critical, environment and contextual factors are more or less ignored in cultural web framework. Figure 1. Cultural web (Johnson and Scholes, 1992) Structural Perspective Opportunity and Resistance Mintzberg(1989)describes structure in a dynamic form. He points out the environmental influence on organizational structure,plus the mannerof its evolvement. It is proposed that complexity plays animportant role in organization s structure, due to its relationship tothe diversity in the environment and the variety of structures in organizations and the pace of change they are confronting. From the practical perspective,both internal and external structural aspects are accountable for organization change in some way(Miller Friesen, 1982).Guth and Ginsberg point out that industry structure affects opportunities for successful new product development(Guth Ginsberg, 1990), thus leads to the innovation and renewal of the product cycle of an organization. From inside, the structures of organizations vary. How individual and team engage and coordinate within an organization influence the ease or challenge of organizational change. It is argued by scholars that there is no perfect approach of organizing an organization (Mintzberg 1989; Drucker 1999). Situational variables involve the environment, objectives, technology, age and size of the organization. For instance,when organization s size increases, structural explanation and dignifiedmechanisms for planning, decision making, and resource allocationwill become more complex(Quinn Cameron, 1983), therefore, are able togenerate progressively greaterconfrontationand inertia to basic change(Tushman Romanelli, 1985).New markets and competitive pressures from the industry call for constant internal innovation and change of prevailing structural dimensions to enable firms to better achieve their strategicobjectives. Restructuring could be a powerful gear for change, in rearrange the resource within the organization and also give strong signals to both customers and employees that things are changing, thus helps to build a innovative image. But sometimes structural change becomes too obvious a choice, without considering other factors such as culture(Clarke, 1994); it can then be at great cost to time, morale, and also ultimately unproductive. So reorganization is not the one solution to every issue.To make it effective, one should always take into account the context of both formal and informal structures, and the bonding alignment of structure and culture, to enable individuals and organizations to cope with uncertainty, variability and ambiguity. Leavitt et al.: Four Levers of Change The organization change can be driven by various factors such as function, structure, and also value and culture alike. Leavitt et al. (1973)suggest that four levers of change constitute the sub-system in an organization, including: structure, which involves hierarchy, authority, centralization and decentralization; task, which indicates work design, uniformity, different levels ofcorporate needs, sovereignty and option; technology, which consists levels of complexity, extent of employee engagement and obligation; and people, which includes cultural aspects such as values, beliefs, attitudes, motives, etc. Force Field Analysis (Kurt Lewin,) Force field analysis provides a framework for checking structural levers in terms of inertia as well as opportunities.By looking at both sides of the organizational driven forces, Lewin s model helps to examine the barriers and resistance of change, and figure out the main facilitators. Figure 2. Force field analysis Model (Lewin, 1951) As shown in Figure 2, one party is attempting to support change driving forces and the other seeking to hold things back restraining forces. In Lewin s model, organizations are more as a dynamic balance of forces effecting in opposite ways. If change is to occur, the equilibrium has to be broken by the driving forces exceeding the restraining forces. Strategy to Change: Contextual Features and Implementation Options Organizational change is often triggered by outside driving force, so the circumstances that form the setting for change cannot be neglected in understanding and assessing strategic change management. Figure 3. Change Kaleidoscope Model (Balogun Hope Hailey , 2002) A change kaleidoscope model is discussed in regard to diagnosis of the context for change (Balogun Hope Hailey , 2002). The authors presents a framework derived from a kaleidoscope metaphoras shown in Figure3, that encompassesan outer ring which illustrate the key change context featureswhich either facilitate or confine change, as well as an inner ring concerning to options openwhen implementing a change.They carry out an analysis of needs, using judgment on what is most critical, and decide which interventions to implement and the orders to be taken. The design choices consist change start-point, change path, change style, change targetand change roles. It is notcontextual feature s impact on the design choices that matters (Balogun Hope Hailey, 2002), they need to work together in a systematic and consistent way. It is argued that the organization mechanisms such as strategy, structure, and peopleshould be aligned with each other to make an effective organization; in this sense, good strategic alignment is crucial to change (Tichy, 1985). Approaches to Change: Models and Frameworks Lewin: Three-Stage Process of Change Most theories on planned change stem from the three-phase model Lewin (1951)developed in describing how an organization undergoes change as following: * Unfreezing: readiness or willingness to accept change. * Moving: choosing appropriate strategies for change itself. * Refreezing: acceptance and stabilization of new behavior. Figure 4. Three-Stage Process of Change(Lewin, 1951) This social-psychological approach to management is about how people in an organization go about changing. First, the members of the organization have to be convinced of the necessityand demand for change, have a sense of urgency, or else nobody will be willing to move and the management will be the only ones believing in the reorganization. Second, the change has to be carried out. And finally the new situation after the second stepneed to be institutionalized, organizational members, have to embed new behavioral patterns, new working methods, new values and norms, otherwise people will soon return to their old habits prior to the change.Later descriptive models all followed this basic outline in how an organization will change. Kotter: Eight-stage Process of Creating Major Change Based on studies of why organizational change so often fails, Kotter (1996)developed the following conditions for successful change in anorganization. i. Establish a sense of urgency ii. Create the guiding coalition iii. Develop a vision and strategy iv. Communicate the change vision v. Empower employees for broad-based action vi. Generate short-term wins vii. Consolidate gains and produce more change viii. Anchor new approaches in the culture. In textbooks and journal articles on managing change numerous other multi-stage models of change management are presented (Burnes, 2009; Carnall, 2003).All of these models provide organizations with a road map for change; they illustrate what steps the organization must take for change initiatives to be adopted within their organization. Application: A Case Studyof Strategic Change Management Introduction and Background Emirates is one of the biggest international aviation service providers. Not satisfied with just being a successful airline company, it aims to evolve into a globally influential travel and tourism conglomerate. In this case, Emirates plans to open the very first Emirates Hotels and Resorts (EHR).This section first focus on the change context for EHR (which uses part of kaleidoscope framework) and followed by an analysis of the cultural dimensions of change using the cultural web framework. And then identify the implementation of change options by applying the rest of the change kaleidoscope model. Finally, a conclusion and recommendations are provided concerning the change management process at EHR. Context of Change Successfully dealt with the change problem in the beginning of its operation, the context which EHR is in should be firstly illustrated. Launched in 2006, Emirates Hotels and Resorts (EHR) isthe premier hospitality management divisionof Emirates Group. Here EHR is facing the problem of opening its flagship property within a short timescale and incongruous force on its side (Carmazzi, 2008). Time, scope, readiness, diversity and capability are identified as contextual features of particular importance in this case. Figure 5.Context of Change in EHR Resource: by author, adapted from the kaleidoscope model Time. The hotel will be welcoming its first customer in 4 weeks time so everyone is extremely busy and everyone has urgent deadlines ahead to accomplish his or her task. Scope. asks the question of what degree of change is needed. EHR has various choice for managing this change, and since the desired type of service should be cohesive with the Emirates philosophy, so top-down, transformational change is required. Readiness. Apparently, the workforce is not ready to change, employees are performing as individuals, and a cohesive way of working is then needed. Diversity. The people involved are quite diversified, but the different background will bring about conflict in service style as well as working values. Capability. Leader of this change is the administration manager, who has his own routine of work. So consultancy was hired to help manage the change. Organizational Culture As discussed in the literature review, organization s culture concerns the shared values and beliefs within it. The cultural web provides a useful perspective to assess what is happening within the company. Figure 6.The Cultural Webof EHR Before the consultancy started working, EHR was more or less in a mess: everyone was running around to get their own business done. The paradigm of EHR shows that in the situation of only 4 weeks left, there are no recognized vision, and lack of unified identity and cohesive force. Though the top and senior management did create a vision for what should be like in the future, but the power of doing their own task is still held by line managers. For example, spa manager has her distinctive view of what are the priorities from the accommodation manager. The status of work and terminologies used at work varies from group to group, individual to individual. Although managers tried hard to communicate the Emirates philosophy to formulate an exclusive service style, the busy, stressed workforce, trained in absolutely diverse background, whose running towards their own deadlines have low interest of what other people are doing, and are not buying in what is forced upon them. Change Choices The outer ring of the kaleidoscope model has been discussed above as to identify the contextual features of the change environment of EHR. That left us with the inner ring of the model, which provides a menu of design options. When change is under consideration, management, as well as other change agents, can find help within this framework.In order to cope with the change effectively, the approach the consultant agency follows can be summarized using the change choices ring in the model. Change path. The change path can range from adaption, reconstruction, evolution or revolution. In EHR s case, the consultancy think it needs a quick win due to the time limit but still not wise to carry out a major transformational turnaround. Change start-point. To start with, the consultants seek for management commitment to the result from a top-down perspective. Then by identifying real issues and key influencers within the company Change target. The attitude and behavior is the major targets of the change process. By group working and sharing, both middle managers and employees expand their psychological foundations by themselves, which lead to a more voluntary transition in attitude and way of doing things. Change style. The changing process is more of a participation style rather than direction or education, with the effort of the consultancy of bringing management and employees together. Change levers. The driven force of the change is interpersonal rather than technological or political. The concept of ownership and self-leadership is conveyed and ignites change in culture from within. Change roles. It is emphasized that every staff is responsible for the change. The key influencers perform as change agents and share with others, so other employee can relate to their own experience at work. Conclusion and Recommendation The subsystems of organizations shown in the culture web are all to do withthe levers of change. Transformational change requiresthe alignment of considerably softer levers within anorganization as well as the hardcore gears ;it is easier to succeed if paying more attention to subtle mechanisms in regard to people (Balogun Hope Hailey, Exploring Strategic Change, 1999). Here are some recommendations on the change management implication of EHR within a short timescale such as 4 weeks to 3 months. 1. Identification process of both the context and change itself should always be carried out carefully. What is happening in the environment has great influence on the nature and type of change. 2. Alignmentof individual factors of the organization should be examined to check whether a fundamental change is required to assure the change undergoes toward the strategic goals. 3. Interventions requireconscientiouslyplanningin order to eliminate the inertia and barriers to change as shown in the cultural web, to create new subsystems including structures, systems, routines, rituals, symbols, and stories. 4. Seen the weakness of an organization, in order to fix it,support from other sort of leaning such as training is required. Individuals need to go through additionalpreparation and be exposed to extra initiatives before they can accept the vision of organizational change.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Life Behind Things :: Psychology Technology Personal Narrative Papers

The Life Behind Things Free: this is how human beings living in democratic societies describe themselves. The general idea, nowadays, is that as long as you are considered equal and are able to voice your opinion and defend your own beliefs, the power is in your hand. Gone are the chains of repression and tyranny that permeated ancient times and enslaved whole societies in the prisons of silence and immobility, forcing them to surrender all of their power to the ruler. All that is left now is one word, resounding gloriously in the back of our minds every time we compare our current situation with that of the past: freedom. I used to feel that liberation every day, especially when I learned about foreign societies that had "remained" imprisoned by unscrupulous leaders who refused to relinquish their power and wealth to the people, however needy the latter were. Political police, torture, propaganda: all these horrifying stories whirled in my head and inevitably brought me back to the same evident conclusion, the fact that I was lucky to inhabit a "modern," "Western" country, and that my freedom, both compared to these unfortunate people and in absolute terms, was unlimited. Indeed, I had never felt any pressure of any kind to act a certain way, or hold specific beliefs at the expense of my own ideas. The origins of such a view of the world were the innate thought that only another human being, especially a man-have we ever seen a female dictator?-could take away my personal power and control my actions. For what else could? Such had been my state of mind when I came to NYU-sixteen years spent holding the firm belief that I had control over my actions, probably silently injected in my mind by my proud parents, as well as by the French society in general and all that it entails: the media, school, politicians. It pervaded my mental life, and I whispered this doctrine to myself, as though humming a baby nursery rhyme, probably pacifying my unconscious claims the way the soft lullaby would console a newborn baby, making his tears subside and causing him to forget why he was weeping in the first place. I had never considered and thought about my life in other terms. Originally not wanting to question this whole system of ideas, which would unavoidably cause great chaos in my mind, I started thinking about the recent turn that my life had taken, a few weeks ago.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Origin Of Surnames :: essays research papers

Origins of Surnames   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In today’s society we all want to know who we are and where our names originated from. Our names are what give each of us our own style and individuality, the importance of style and individuality can be related back to our original surnames. Our surnames have come from all areas of the world, each with specific meanings to our family. Surnames or last names have an important meaning to all of us, they give us identity through our family’s history. Looking back into history our names have changed drastically, keeping some people from knowing how their surnames really originated. Surnames originated early in history and did so for many reasons.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first knowledge of surnames was in the biblical times, they used names that went by geography, for example â€Å" Corey of Carlisle.† The actual use of surnames originated in Europe, and in some Scandinavian areas, in the eleventh and fifteenth century by small villages. The reason that no surnames were used before this time was the fact that most people were illiterate, living in small villages in a country atmosphere. Living out in the country these people had no reason to learn to read or write, because their lives were lived off the land. They did not need surnames to signify who they we’re or what they did. In these small villages they went by their first names, people all had different first names, so they did not need surnames to tell people apart. But when the population of the villages grew, it became important to have surnames to identify two people with the same name. The use of surnames showed social class, culture, tradition and, the jobs they worked.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The forming of surnames first came from other names by which someone was called. The name â€Å"Johnson† originated from â€Å"the son of John,† and the same goes with my last name â€Å"Richardson.† In some countries they would use their mothers first name for a surname, such as â€Å"Paige.† Jimmy Paige, from the band Led Zeppelin, could say his surname originated this way. Other origins of surnames came from places and geographical names. The surname â€Å"England† or â€Å"Penn† show this quality. Obviously England is a country and Penn is shortened from Pennsylvania. Surnames like â€Å"Smith† ( as in blacksmith ) and â€Å"Carpenter† ( one who works with wood ) come from the jobs that these people held.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Justice System Position Essay

Juvenile crime rates in the United States fell to a new 32-year low in 2013. In 2012 there were around 60,000 violent crime arrests involving youths under the age of 18. From 2011 to 2012 there was a 10% decline in the number of youth arrests for all four offenses, which contributed to an overall drop of 36 percent since 2003. In 1994, police reported 500 violent youth crime arrests for every 100,000 10-17-olds in the population. In 2008, the arrest rate fell and there were 300 arrests for every 100,000 juveniles in the population. Now, between 2009 and 2012, there are 190 arrests per 100,000 juveniles (â€Å"Violent Youth Crime in U.S. falls to New 32-Year Low†, 2013). What do all these numbers represent? A new hope in the future of the youth in the United States. Some of the main reasons contributing to this dramatic decrease in juvenile arrest rates include a shift in thinking about the best ways to handle young people who break the law, a continual period of decreasing juv enile crime, and fiscal pressures on state governments that have many people, including conservatives who supported tough-on-crime policies, looking for less-expensive alternatives to mass incarceration. The United States rates for incarceration for juveniles are18 times greater that of France, and more than seven times greater than that of Britain. Countries like Finland or Sweden do not usually lock up young offenders and offer the youth the best opportunities to mature into adulthood. Large-scale incarceration only leads to abuse and harsh treatment for the children and teenagers confined, and it is very expensive. In fact an average bed in a juvenile correction facility costs about $88,000 a year. Putting troubled youth into extremely disciplined, restrictive, and long-term environments goes against everything that we know about the juvenile brain and takes away opportunities from these adolescents to learn new skills and positive ways of behaving. Most states stress incarceration and punishment and it is interfering with effective diversionary, treatment, and rehabilitation practices (â€Å"Building a More Effective Juvenile System†, 2014). Rehabilitation practices seem t o be the most logical route to treating  delinquent youth and preparing them for a better future. They are the future of America and they are treated now will affect the crime rates in the future. A number of evidence-based practices have made a positive impact on reduced incarceration and reoffending for youth. Research shows that threatening and disciplinary interactions, incarceration, and punishment only increase the aggressive behavior that we see in troubled youth. To help our youth and continue to decrease the rates of delinquency and re-offending we can reduce the weight on incarceration and punishment and increase offenders’ interactions with positive well-trained adults that will help them become better individuals. Juvenile delinquency has been a major problem for law enforcement officers. Law enforcement officers have a goal to prevent juvenile delinquency from happening. Without knowing what triggers delinquency, officers have no idea how to stop it before it happens. In the past law enforcements reaction to delinquent behavior was to arrest these individuals. With the dramatic decrease in youth arrests, it makes a difference in what police officers are dealing with every day. It also makes their jobs safer. If law enforcement did nothing, then juveniles would continue to do the wrong. Law enforcement should show interest in the youths in the communities that they serve. Talking to them, asking questions, and pointing them in the right direction could change their lives. Police officers are role models and even can be heroes. In 2001 San Diego police officer Jeremy Henwood was approached by a 13-year-old boy and asked for a dime to buy a cookie at McDonalds. Officer Henwood took some time and asked the boy what he wanted to be when he grew up. The boy replied that he wanted to become a basketball player in the NBA. Officer Henwood explained to him that he would need to work hard and focus to get there. He bought the boy some cookies and went back to his police cruiser. Only moments later Officer Henwood was gunned down in his car and killed. When this boy heard the news it broke his heart and he said that his conversation with Officer Henwood meant so much to him. He said he would never forget the conversation that they had. It made a difference to him. He said that he would work hard to reach his goals because of him (â€Å"Slain San  Diego Officer Remembered for Good Deeds†, 2011). Law enforcement can make a difference for our youth and through these efforts reduce delinquency and make their jobs easier. Juvenile courts and probation play a central role in the management of juvenile justice in the United States. Any policies and programs pushed by these units greatly define the Nation’s response to juvenile crime. In 1996 1.76 million delinquency cases were handled by U.S. courts and juvenile probation officers had contact with almost every one of those cases. While rates have decreased since 1996, it still puts a huge weight on both units (â€Å"Overview†, 1999). While it might cost more to rehabilitate and treat all juvenile offenders at first, the number of reoffenders would decrease drastically. They could be taught how to use the skills they were born with, learn new skills, and learn how to be successful in life. Eventually the weight would not only be off of the court and probation system, but also off of the rehabilitation programs. Another unit in the justice system that would be affected by rehabilitation is corrections. Currently correction facilities do offer some sort of rehabilitation for those inmates who choose it or have no choice. Because of high demands, not every delinquent can receive the specific treatment that they need. If rehabilitation took priority in the first place, the incarceration rates would certainly decrease and these facilities could provide individualized treatment. As I mentioned earlier, to provide a bed for one youth for a year costs on average $88,000. If these numbers decreased, these funds could be used to provide scholarships and other incentives to our youth. Currently community services are used as a punishment for juvenile delinquents instead of incarceration. It usually is a method used to show a delinquent that there are consequences to their actions. Meaningful community service along with proper treatment can show children and young teens that there is so much more to l ife than getting into trouble. It is a great way to give back to the community and help these kids feel important. Rehabilitation comes in many forms but its main goal is to restore the good in a person and prevent habitual offending. These centers can provide academic and vocational education, treatment programs  that address violent and criminal behavior, sex offender behavior, substance abuse, mental health programs, and medical care while maintaining a safe and secure environment beneficial to learning. Programs such as these could reduce institutional violence and future criminal behavior by teaching anti-criminal attitudes and providing personal skills for youths. With all that said, some people argue that punishment is necessary and should remain the main focus of the juvenile justice system. Punishment advocates state that our youth understand right from wrong and should be punished for their actions. I think that what these advocates do not realize is what these kids are facing when they are locked up. The conditions that will live in while they serve the time on their sentence may act ually change them for the worse. Maybe if these advocates spent a day or a week living the way an incarcerated juvenile does their opinions would change dramatically. An argument against rehabilitation is that juvenile rehabilitation is unique for each individual. What works to treat one kid might not work for another. It makes it harder to treat each juvenile and get positive results. With each new entry into the system, the chances of rehabilitation for each kid decreases. That shouldn’t mean that everyone gives up hope and locks up each delinquent until they feel they have been punished long enough. What this shows is that more resources and time should be put into rehabilitation efforts. Creating facilities that specialize in different areas and placing these youths where they feel they will thrive is needed. If it doesn’t work, the information that they have learned about that delinquent should be enough to send them to another facility where they will receive the proper services. Before a child turns three years old the state is responsible for all learning disabilities. It is the job of the state to evaluate that child and pro vide services to help that child meet their milestones. Once the child turns three years old the school system in the state becomes responsible for the learning development of that child. The school system will evaluate and place the child into a school that will work to improve the skills of this child. If there are no improvements, the child will receive another evaluation and changes in placement will be made. This process continues until the child is receiving the exact learning environment that they need. I know all of this from personal experience with my son. These same efforts should be used for youths heading in the wrong  direction. They are the future of America and with youth arrest rates already decreasing, there is a chance for a safer future for a lot of people. Punishment can make a person angry and resentful. A child is usually provided warnings that if they continue certain behavior they will find themselves in â€Å"time out† or have certain toys or electronics taken away. Once they use up all possible warnings that punishment is enforced. It makes the child angry and upset but usually they realize that they have to be good before they are able to get out of â€Å"time out† or get back what was taken from them. As a mother I can say that these methods work. The difference in punishment at home and punishment by law is that it is a family matter. These children are working with loved ones. When punished by the law and placed in institutions it is not up to family anymore on what kind of treatment they will receive. It can be damaging to these kids. I can only hope that more time and effort be placed in helping these kids become better people. The right kind of rehabilitation efforts can help almost anyone. Taking time to learn the problems a juvenile has and working to show them that it is only a problem and problems always have a solution, is a positive approach to decreasing juvenile delinquency. Given the decreasing rates of delinquency over the last 32 years shows, in my opinion, that our country is on the right track in helping our youth. Change has always been necessary and ways to improve are always on the agenda. Reference Page Violent Youth Crime in U.S. Falls to New 32-Year Low. (2013). Retrieved from Juvenile Delinquency Current Issues, Best Practices, and Promising Approaches. (2008). Retrieved from (â€Å"Juvenile Delinquency Current Issues, Best Practices, And Promising Approaches†, 2008). Building a More Effective Juvenile System. (2014). Retrieved from Slain San Diego officer remembered for good deeds. (2011). Retrieved from Overview. (1999). Retrieved from