Sunday, December 29, 2019
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) One of the leading causes of mental retardation in the United States is fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by pregnant women because its legal and socially acceptable. A greater majority of young women are not aware of the complications that are involved with pregnancy. They see pregnancy as a way of bringing a life into the world but do not use the necessary safety measure in their dietary habits to prevent such damage or inhibitions of such a life. By continuing on their drinking binge throughout their pregnancy, they can cause an inexplicable damage to herself and the fetus she is carrying. In my opinion, any amount of alcohol combined with pregnancy can causeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦quot;We report here on an innovative method that assessed drink size without reliance on research subjects judgment of the number of ounces in their usual drinks, instead employing vessel models to enable research participants to indicate their drink siz es, for a period prior to knowing they were pregnantquot; (Kaskutas amp; Graves, 2001). nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The subjects for this research were 221 women, mostly living in urban areas. 70 of them were Native Americans, 129 were African Americans and 22 were Caucasians. These women were drawn July 1996-97 from prenatal clinics, general health clinics and women-infant-children clinics in Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay area. These women were asked how much did they drink across beverage types (quot;graduated frequencyquot; across beverages) and how big those drinks were (Respondent-defined drink sizes, by beverage). The self-defined size that the women drank is then compared to the standard size for that beverage. Through a series of calculations, Kaskutas amp; Graves figured out the amount of over- or under-reporting that is engendered by assuming respondents convert their actual drink sizes into requested standard drink sizes for beer, wine and spirits, and into ethanol-equivalent standard drink sizes for malt liquor, wine coolers and fortified wine (2001). Wilco xons non-parametric statistical procedure wasShow MoreRelatedFetal Alcohol Syndrome ( Fas )1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdisorders is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). According to Feldman (2009), Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a disorder that is induced by pregnant women who have consumed alcohol during the duration of their pregnancy, possibly resulting in mental deformity and delayed the growth of the child. Some characteristics of FAS include growth deficiency and central nervous system dysfunction (Mattson, 2006). Although the child may not be diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, if the child was exposed to alcohol duringRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS Essay2732 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesCould you ever imagine feeding your infant alcohol through a bottle? This is equivalent to what alcohol does to the fetus in the womb. This results in a tragic disease known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Alcohol can affect a human body in many different ways. Alcohol can be the highlight of a party and ma ke anything exciting, but also can seriously alter human life. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s quite often that we see on the news another victim dead, or in critical condition because their signs and symptoms were loud enoughRead MorePrenatal Alcohol During Pregnancy Results Of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ( Fas )1497 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprenatal ethanol exposure. Alcohol. 2013; 47 (2): 109-120. Introduction Consuming alcohol during pregnancy results in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The spectrum of FAS ranges from barely detectable to severe functional and cognitive birth defects. In the United States approximately 9.1 out of 1,000 live births exhibit some degree of FAS spectrum. Although excessive consumption of alcohol is considered a human teratogen the biochemical mechanism and the developmental origins FAS spectrum remain unclearRead MoreEssay on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome1390 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin this essay is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS); caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Since the alcohol is consumed in such a developing stage of the fetus, it can potentially cause many different complications in the unborn child. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome could easily be prevented with more awareness to the issue and its defining characteristics, how it affects the fetus during growth, and finally the long-term effects on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The science behind FAS will be explainedRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a condition affecting children born to women who drink heavily during pregnancy. There are three criteria used to describe the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and to make a diagnosis of FAS. The first of these is a pattern of facial anomalies, these features include: #61558; Small eye openings #61558; Flat cheekbones #61558; Flattened groove between nose and upper lip #61558; Thin upper lip These characteristicsRead MoreThe Disorder Of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe the disorder Fetal Alcohol Syndrome .This paper will aim to discuss what the disorder is ,it s history how it is diagnosed and the treatment and prevention of this disorder. Taking a sip a int hip Introduction :Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing(Bible-Judges 13:7).It has been known throughout history that the effects of alcohol use in pregnancyRead MoreThe Truth About What Alcohol Abuse Does to a Fetus1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Truth About Fetal Alcohol Abuse Would you have ever thought of physically, mentally, and/or emotionally harming an unborn child? In the 1990s people have noted the significant impact alcohol-related birth defects are having on our society then and now. My essay will discuss alcohol consumption among pregnant women and its adverse effects on fetal development. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or FAS is physical and mental health problem that destroys a childs learning development.Read MoreThe Effects of Alcohol from Utero into Later Life600 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Effects of Alcohol from Utero into Later Life During the ten months of gestation, the ever-growing fetus goes through the stages and changes of becoming a functional human. Unfortunately for some, these children will not get the full advantages of life because of the choices of another. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been calculated to have an impact on nearly forty thousand infants a year (fasdcenter). To really see the magnitude of the effects of this easily preventable disorder, researchersRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Fetal Alcohol Syndrome According to Seaver, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is birth defects causing learning, and behavioral problems in individuals whose mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy. This disorder is very serious, yet it is recognized as one of the most preventable. This causes major issues, when something so serious could be prevented but is not. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a problem because it leaves a permanent effect on the unborn child, but some solutions could be educating women andRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol During Pregnancy On Children1041 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlcohol is a TERATOGEN, meaning that it will cause developmental damage to a FETUS or EMBRYO. The degree to which a TERATOGEN wreaks havoc on an unborn child largely depends on four factors: dosage, heredity, age, and additional negative factors. The most vulnerable prenatal period is during the stage of embryonic development, which occurs between the third and eighth weeks of pregnancy. Once alcohol penetrates the PLACENTA an d enters the fetal bloodstream it hinders the neurons inside the childÃ¢â¬â¢s
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Life should be considered a light bulb. The moment a human enters the world. the light bulb turns on, and the light is bright; however, if the light bulb becomes less bright, it symbolizes a human being looking only at the past or presentÃ¢â¬âinstead of looking forward to the future. John Fitzgerald Kennedy once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.Ã¢â¬ In the play Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller, the protagonist Willy Loman is depicted as a man who has failed in life; he spent most of his life reminiscing the past. This affected his life greatly, especially his relationship with his son, Biff Loman. Nevertheless, in the novel, The Great Gatsby by Francis Scott Fitzgerald, the protagonist, Jay Gatsby undergoes a major change in life; he goes from being a poor man to West EggÃ¢â¬â¢s richest man. Gatsby believes that his wealth would help him get the love of his life backÃ¢â¬âDaisy Buchanan. In this paper, the Marxist theory will be used to describe how the idea of achieving the American Dream lead to the deaths of Willy Loman and Jay GatsbyÃ¢â¬âtheir corrupt versions of the American Dream. Nonetheless, this analysis will give the readers the opportunity to learn that in life, one should not live in the past, especially since it prevents one from living a successful and hopeful futureÃ¢â¬âthe brightness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s lightbulb. The play Death of a Salesman is a play that depicts vital Marxist ideas, as well as beliefs. WhileShow MoreRelatedThe Death Of A Salesman By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimpact? In F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Great Gatsby, is one extraordinary novel that he wrote in 1925. F.Scott Fitzgerald s novel takes place in 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and takes part of the 1st World War. It is written about a young man named Nick, he moved to west egg to take a new life occupation on the bond business. He ends up being neighbors with a mysterious man named Gatsby who ends up giving him an interesting aspect of his life. Similar to Biff in the Death Of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. The Death of aRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By F. Scott Fitzgerald2062 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagestasks purpose. Dreams, however, are not always beneficial. They can often, like in these works, be build on nonrealistic ideals, which drive characters in the wrong direction and lead to self distruction. Bot h F. Scott Fitzgerald through The Great Gatsby and Arthur Miller through Death of a Salesman use these misshapen dreams and visions of the future to describe their characters, build toward their downfalls or dramatic turning points, and to create a theme of the crushing power of broken dreams. WillyRead MoreMen and Their Music in Death of a Salesman by F. Scott Fitzgerald1085 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Describing auditory sensations in text is often very difficult. Nevertheless, Arthur Miller in his play Death of a Salesman and F. Scott Fitzgerald in his novel The Great Gatsby. Music is a very useful method of communicating in prose because it can give off a sensation to the reader that mere text or dialogue cannot. Although the authors use drastically different types of music, one using popular music and the other using solo instrumental music, both authors are very effective. The authors useRead MoreThe American Dream By F. Scott Fitzgerald And Death Of A Salesman Essay1391 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTruslow Adams once wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"The American Dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. In both The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, the main characters search for the achievement of the American dream in themselves and the worl d around them. While the American dream is defined differently for the main characters in each novel, both Willy LomanRead MoreComparing The Death Of A Salesman And The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages English Essay: Compare and contrast After reading The Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, it is clear that there are associations that can be made between the two novels. There are many ways in which the life of Willy Loman compares or contrasts with the life of Jay Gatsby. The most obvious and simplest comparison is their pursuit of the American Dream which leads to their ultimate downfall. Although, Willy and Gatsby contrast in theRead MoreThe American Dream in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe American Dream in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald In a majority of literature written in the 20th century, the theme of the American Dream has been a prevalent theme. This dream affects the plot and characters of many novels, and in some books, the intent of the author is to illustrate the reality of the American Dream. However, there is no one definition of the American Dream. Is it the right to pursue your hearts wish,Read MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAn inability to be at peace with oneself is a defining connection between the central characters of The Great Gatsby, a timeless classic written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, set in a hedonistic summer of 1922 America, and Death of a Salesman, written by American playwright Arthur Miller set in 1949 America. The characterisation of both Willy and Gatsby illustrate that they have similarities, in a way that are considered destitute, with imperfect ethical conduct. To a certain extent both protagonists haveRead MoreEssay On The American Dream In The Great Gatsby1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe two novels, The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Death of a Salesman, by Arthur Miller. Both of the main characters in these novels had a specific dream and they based their entire lives off of these dreams. T he main characters from each novel, Gatsby and Willy, spend their entire lives fighting to achieve their goals and struggle with a multitude of different issues along the way. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, the American DreamRead MoreFailure Of The American Dream In The Writings Of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Zora Neale Hurston, And August Wilson1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfailure of the Ã¢â¬ American DreamÃ¢â¬ in the writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Arthur Miller, Zora Neale Hurston, and August Wilson. FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s account of the Jay Gatsby s rise to fame in the 1920s defines the failure of financial success as part of the American Dream. Gatsby will eventually die due to his excessive greed, which is not unlike the emotional death of Willy Loman as he fails to become a successful salesman in Author MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Death of a Salesman. More so, HurstonÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of NannyÃ¢â¬â¢s own failuresRead MoreEssay about Great Gatsby862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby / Gatsbys Desire for Daisy exploring why Gatsby had such an obsessive desire for Daisy. The writer purports that Gatsby began by pursuing an ideal, not the real woman. In fact, he could not recognize the type of person she had become since they last saw each other. Gatsby lives in a dream world and Daisy is part of that dream. As the novel progresses, however, Gatsbys feelings change. Bibliography lists Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby : The Role
Friday, December 13, 2019
Emergence of United States of America itself was an epitome of certain ideological expressions i. e. liberty, fraternity, equality etc but American progress in the political, social, economic and technological domains capacitated the American spirit to devise the new ideological patterns and modify the existing ones. We will write a custom essay sample on American Promotionalism or any similar topic only for you Order Now The socio-economic growth of 19th century produced a phenomenon of liberal-developmentalism that contains the entire major thematic expressions of American ideology. This liberal-developmentalism ideology was a combination of American beliefs in their cherished ideals and these liberal beliefs were further augmented by the American historical experience of extraordinary triumphs in the in the socio-economic sectors. All these factors compelled the Americans to assume that their socio-economic model was of universal in nature and must be replicated at the universal level. So this ideology together with economic compulsions and mass production set an impetus to export the American dream to other geographical locations. The most widespread concern for American foreign policymakers remain that America has a peculiar destiny and that destiny must be expanded universally. So this ideological underpinning found its expression in the strategic and operational mechanisms of American foreign policies during the last decade of 19th century and first half of the 20th century. The culmination of World War II was the America was successful in inculcating their cherished ideals of democracy, capitalism, free trade etc. in the new world order. Major tenets of American ideology: Emily S. Rosenberg (1982) has recognized five underlying principle of the Liberal-Developmentalism ideology that emerged in the last half of 19th century. According to him, these major traits are; (1) belief that other nations could and should replicate AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s own developmental experience; (2) faith in private free enterprise;(3) support for free and open access for trade and investment; (4) promotion of free flow of information and culture and (5) growing acceptance of governmental activity to protect private enterprise and to stimulate and regulate American participation in international economic and cultural exchange. (p. 7) These major tenets of American ideology were inculcated in the spirit and operation of each American foreign policy move. Whether it is annexation of Philippines or colonization of Cuba, these ideological parameters were at the helm of the affairs. Furthermore, this American mission to extend and export these ideological patterns universally worked under two motives. Religious zeal to spread the American version of Christianity with basic features of American socio-economic standards worked closely with secular and liberal intelligentsia. Evangelical sectors of American life thought that Christianity was a prerequisite for modernization. So missionaries spread American ideals to different parts of the world. Secular sections of American intelligentsia were of the view that national advancements and global progress are the manifestation of a single dream i. e. to propagate American ideology. Rosenberg (1982) asserts that it was the Ã¢â¬Å"economic needs, Anglo-Saxon mission, and the progressive impulseÃ¢â¬ that worked together with government endeavor to set an expansionist agenda and one of the motives for these designs was the spread of American ideology worldwide. Although there were differences over the question how to propagate Americanization but all these seems converging on a single point that means do not matter and it is all about ends i. e. universalizing the American values. (Hunt, 1987) Acquisition of Philippines; Acquisition of Philippines in the later part of 1890s generated much controversy across America over the issue. The nation was divided into two opposing groups i. e. imperialists and anti-imperialists. The imperialists favored the annexation due to their worldview based on ground realties and practical necessities while anti-imperialists preferred to base their stand on idealistic and nostalgic views of mythic American past. Imperialist was of the view that in the changing world scenario, America should change it isolationist agenda and must assess its strength against the imperial powers of Europe in the international arena. The spirit of Manifest Destiny subsisted, and imperialists hankered after to expand the American authority and influence overseas. Their international view was further reinforced by the political, economic and strategic necessities. The anti-imperialists considered the annexation Philippines as an apparent violation of cherished American ideals and political traditions. The imperialist viewpoint can be located by having an in-depth look at the ideas and worldviews of Ã¢â¬Å"the five who created the first genuine American imperialismÃ¢â¬ i. e. John Hay, secretary of state under McKinley and Roosevelt, Alfred T. Mahan, a naval officer and military analyst; Elihu Root, secretary of war under McKinley and Roosevelt, and was responsible for the management of the Philippines and Cuba; Henry Cabot Lodge, the conniving senator from Massachusetts, and Theodore Roosevelt. (Zimmermann X) These paragons of American imperialism considered that in the changing international political scenario, America should not reside in a policy of isolation but must establish its foothold on various strategically important locations. The ultimate goal of this policy might not be territorial gains but it should be strategic monopoly of the international politics and commerce. They further reinforced the idea that it is a defining moment in the way America is linked to the world. It will provide Ã¢â¬Å"Americans and their leaders self-confidence, a sense of their own power, and an abiding belief that they could shape international life according to their values. Ã¢â¬ (Zimmerman I) In addition to these broad concerns, economic gains through the annexation of Philippines further shaped the worldview of the imperialists. President was moved by the Ã¢â¬Å"touchstone of Asian tradeÃ¢â¬ (RTAP 52) and economic motives served a proper background for President McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s resolution to annex the islands. Ã¢â¬Å"His [McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s] object was not a colonial empire but the minimum territory needed to obtain conquest of world markets, along with taking of strategic points necessary to protect the conquest. Ã¢â¬ (RTAP 52) Acting secretary of States William R. Day and MassachusettsÃ¢â¬â¢ Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge considered that the surpluses produced by American factories require huge markets especially China. They were further influenced by Brooks Adams theory of center of money exchanges with a conception that now United States is in a position to capture the world economy and rule it. Brooks Adam further said, Ã¢â¬Å"We must have new markets unless we would be visited by declines in wages and by great industrial disturbances, of which signs have not been lacking. The old theory of competing in foreign markets merely by the price of production is no longer predictable. Ã¢â¬ So a Ã¢â¬Å"navy, coaling stations and ports in the EastÃ¢â¬ ¦have become essential condition in our timesÃ¢â¬ (RTAP 53) Beside the expansionist design and economic necessities, another factor that contributed to hold the entire archipelago under America was military necessity. After attaining military victories in the islands, it was inappropriate to vacate it for other powers to fight over it. It was a commonly held belief among imperialist that by placing Ã¢â¬Å"A protectorate seemed unsuitable, since it would place heavy duties on the United States without supplying enough authority to carry them outÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Most American believed that freeing the islands would result in internal chaos followed by a German, British, or Japanese takeoverÃ¢â¬ ¦No country made a serious attempt to deny the Philippines to United States, but at least four might have collided headlong if Washington turned them looseÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ (RTAP 48) The anti-imperialist worldview was based on sentimental and traditional values of the past. Mostly, it was comprised of ethical and moral issues, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-colonial origin and past, its democratic traditions and cherished ideals of liberty and freedom. This altruistic viewpoint was further founded in the fear that these imperialist practices would erode the traditional political fabric of America and would violate the cherished American ideals. Yet for all their passion, the enemies of the new imperialism seemed old-fashioned and out of touch. They looked back to a mythic American past, while Roosevelt and his friends laid claim to a bountiful futureÃ¢â¬ ¦the anti-imperialists were on the losing end of historical change. (Zimmermann VIII) Additionally, anti-imperialists American worldview was molded by humanitarian and racial issues and anti-imperialists denounced that like African American, the Filipinos would be treated the same way and would be negated the basic human rights provisions. This perspective was further supported by feminist stance that identified Filipinos as the American women Ã¢â¬Å"who are governed without their consentÃ¢â¬ (RTAP 55) Some racial views suggested that assimilation of Philippines Eastern society would harm the social fabric of American society and would have negative effects on the future prospects of American social development. The imperialist position was based on concrete ground realities. Their basic agenda was expansionism or Ã¢â¬Å"Americanism (as Roosevelt put it) but it also included the latent political, economic and strategic advantages for America whereas anti-imperialist worldview was grounded in outmoded idealism of the past. Imperialist viewpoint had more practical and beneficial motivation to annex Philippines as Republican Senator Lodge said in the senate, Ã¢â¬Å"the enormous material benefits to our trade, our industries, and our labor dependant upon a right settlement of this questionÃ¢â¬ (RTAP 54) Due this imperialist worldview, since 1898, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the world changed forever. A country that had restricted her power and influence to the western hemisphere suddenly obtained a Ã¢â¬Å"global reach that it would never relinquishÃ¢â¬ (Zimmerman I) This clearly manifested that American annexation of Philippines were motivated by a combination of various factor in which economic necessities and spreading of American dream i. e. to Americanize the peninsula were the chief objectives. Spanish-American War: Spanish-American was another important geo-strategic enterprise that marked the emergence of U. S. as an important international player. Though war marked the beginning of American Imperialism, but war itself was not caused by the imperialist or expansionist designs of Americans. Ã¢â¬ The warÃ¢â¬ , as Prof. Blum puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"grew out of the deplorable conditions in Cuba and seems intolerable to an aroused popular sentiments in the United States. Ã¢â¬ (Blum, p. 502) Another reno3wned historian Samuel Morison consider this exercise a totally emotional enterprise and says, Ã¢â¬Å"no war was ever more or emotional and less economic in motivesÃ¢â¬ (Morison, 1982. p. 801) But his assertion on another occasion seems appropriate as it depicts that American exercise was purely based on their cherished ideals of democracy and liberty. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"This was a closer and more personal war to Americans than either world war; and was their own little war for liberty and democracy against all that tyrannical, treacherous, and fetid in the Old WorldÃ¢â¬ . (p. 802) America found an apt time and place to exercise their ideological patterns. At last the nation distinguished manifested itself as a major world power and tried to play a vital role in the broad international arrangements for the fist time. It consciously became one of the tutors of the backward nation. Under such pro-consuls as General Leonard Wood, it tried to implant their own ideology in Cuban soil and undertook huge task of psychological and material reformation, reorganizations and development in Cuba. Rosenberg says that General Wood Ã¢â¬Å"vowed to create a polity Ã¢â¬Ëmolded closely upon lines of our great Republic. Ã¢â¬â¢ Wood brought in a host of experts to reshape Cuba. Americans assumed direction of customhouses (the major source of government revenue), controlled the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s finances, organized a postal service, established telephone and telegraphic lines, encouraged railroads and shipping facilities, built road, carried out sanitation projectsÃ¢â¬ ¦established schoolsÃ¢â¬ ¦and invited New York City Police to organize their counterparts in Havana. Ã¢â¬ (p. 46) All these measures were intended to Americanize the socio-cultural and economic spheres, both at the ideological and material levels. Rosenberg further says that Ã¢â¬Å"Cuba thus became a laboratory for methods of influence that fell short of outright colonialismÃ¢â¬ . (p. 47) But history manifested that outright colonialism and subjugation of other nation is an outdated phenomenon. Furthermore, direct colonialization and annexation produced resentment and sentiments of hatred among the dominated nation. So it was a not a suitable mechanism to spread the American dreams and its various ideological expressions. So American spirit for exporting their cherished ideals devised new means to have control on the other geographical territories and to mold their society on American pattern. One of such mechanisms was Howard TaftÃ¢â¬â¢s Dollar Diplomacy. Taft wad enthusiastic about the military preparedness as his predecessor Roosevelt was. He therefore used the level of American investments to boost American diplomacy. Fearing the designs of Japan in China, Taft believed that if not checked Japan would not only seize the entire North China but also freeze out American trade in the Far East. Consequently, he supported the construction of American financed railroads in Manchuria with a view to checkmate the Japanese and to preserve the Ã¢â¬ËOpen DoorÃ¢â¬â¢ in China. He encouraged the bankers to invest their surplus in foreign areas of strategic importance to the United States, especially in the Far East and the regions that might menace the Panama Canal. He feared hat if the American investors would not come forward, investors from rival powers like Germany would make the necessary investments and gain control over the seas. But as the American capital have never been interested in making investments in Manchuria, the State Department even brought pressure on the reluctant banks to invest in this region. This new policy of Dollar diplomacy that substituted dollars for bullets was complete violation of the liberal ideological tenets of freedom of investment. Furthermore this dollar diplomacy was prompted by strategic and imperialist concerns i. e. to check the rapidly growing power of Japan in China instead of promotional objectives. (Nearing and Freeman, 1925) This clearly manifest that sometime during the period 1890-1945, some strategic and defense objective overweighed the higher objective of spreading American ideology abroad and creating a new socio-economic world milieu based on American ideals. Post World War I Foreign policy and it correlation with Nationalist ideology; A case Study of Germany: During World War I, United States was deeply involved in the affairs of the world and allied won he victory mainly due to the support of men, money and materials they got from United States. But after the war ended, most of the American people started feeling that it was folly on their part to have entered the war because in return for what America gave to the allies, she received nothing. Consequently there was a rethinking about the foreign policy. In the meanwhile Republicans came to power in America and enunciated a new policy. Harding, the Republican President said about the new foreign policy; Ã¢â¬Å"We seek no part in directing the destinies of the worldÃ¢â¬ ¦we are ready to associate ourselves with the nations of the world, great and small, for conference and counsel, for suggestions of mediations, conciliation and arbitration; but every commitment must be made in the exercise of our national sovereignty. Ã¢â¬ (Harding, 1923) It would be wrong to attribute this policy of United States as a policy of isolationism or diversion from the American mission of promoting their national ideology abroad. It can more appropriately be described as the policy of Ã¢â¬Ëcooperation without entangling alliances. Ã¢â¬â¢ This was due to the fact that new subtle and profound international mechanisms were available that can capacitate America to act as a promotional state. A South American writer, Manuel Ugarte has identified the change in American policy in these words; Ã¢â¬Å"The United StatesÃ¢â¬ ¦ inaugurated the system of annexing wealth, apart from inhabitants or territories, disdaining outward shows in order to arrive at the essentials of domination without a dead-weight of areas to administrate and multitudes to governÃ¢â¬ ¦ (Manuel Ugarte, 1923). Economic activity was one such subtle mechanism that enabled America to spread its ideology of free trade and capitalistic mode of world commercial activity. Peace was an ultimate requirement for this mechanism to work. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover speech about the American economic activity as a tool of American foreign policy provides an important assessment abut the directions pf American foreign policy. Ã¢â¬Å"By contributing to peace and economic stability, by the loan of our surplus savings abroad for productive purposes, by the spread f interventions over the world, we can contribute to the elevation of standards of living in foreign countries in their relations to each other. (U. S Department of Commerce, 1926) At the time of assuming office as president, Harding announced that the league issue was Ã¢â¬Å"dead as slaveryÃ¢â¬ and his administration would not lead United States into the League of Nations Ã¢â¬Å"by the side door, back door or cellar doorÃ¢â¬ . Yet in spite of these pronouncements Hardinge as well as Coolidge were compelled to involve their country more deeply into the world arena than ever before. But this time their involvement was on a more subtle and economic level. The first such involvement was in the affairs of Europe when it concluded a peace treaty with Germany. As United States has failed to ratify the treaty of Versailles, she was legally speaking still at war with Germany. In July 1921, Congress passed a resolution by which peace was declared. By this treaty America showed its willingness to pay for the German property seized during the war. This was a subtle move as leaving Germany in a state of devastation would had resulted in bad consequences for America and its ideological and strategic objectives in the region. Bolshevik Russia was a logical choice for Germany if American would have created a vacuum. This meant that instead of ideals of liberalism, democracy and free trade, socialism and close-economy would had have encircled the German economy and socio-cultural life. Frank Costigliola (1984) says in this regard; Pacifying and rebuilding Germany was integral to containing the Bolshevik revolutionÃ¢â¬ ¦ Bolshevik Russia represented both a symbolic and a substantive threat to the peaceful change alternative. Most American leaders viewed the Soviet Union as revolution incarnate, despite MoscowÃ¢â¬â¢s caution and conservatism. If GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s political and economic structure collapsed, its people, American feared, might in desperation forged a Russian alliance to overthrow both Versailles and capitalism. Their very opposition to revolution led Hoover, Hughes, and other American leaders to combat the French policy of rigidly enforcing Versailles, which would only build up pressures for changeÃ¢â¬ ¦ (p. 96) So resolution of conflicts with Germany, provision of financial, technological and material help to uplift the German socio-economic spheres were imperative for Americans. Although these were motivated by certain strategic and political goals but ideological consideration acted as underlying theme in the whole process. This is the reason that Hughes appealed to private experts and economists to come with new strategies and theoretical framework to help Germany in its economic turmoil. Export of popular American culture through various means also helped America to spread its influences and ideology abroad. One manifestation of this soft power i. e. American culture was its film industry. It helped greatly to promote the American ideology abroad and also had effect on trade. Edward G. Lowry as early as 1925 recognized Ã¢â¬Å"this new factor in the international relationships that has caused the flutterÃ¢â¬ (Lowry, 1925. p. 12) Costigliola is of the view that war weary generation of the West looked toward technologically advanced America for cultural models and America offered Ã¢â¬Å"its own institutions and values, or what contemporaries termed AmericanismÃ¢â¬ (p. 98) America colonized the European through their soft power especially Films and tried to inculcate their own ideological patterns in the spirit and minds of Europeans. All these evidence and arguments clearly manifest that although American foreign relation was marked with political necessities and economic concerns but ideological underpinning remained an ultimate objective. The political and economic inevitabilities were also manifestation of these ideological underpinnings For example, to influence free trade was a material expression of liberalism that originated from public-private partnership in the American history. American concerns in Philippines, Cuba and post World War I apprehensions in Germany was al amalgam of ideological requirement with geo-strategic obligations but it is also a fact that Dollar Diplomacy in TaftÃ¢â¬â¢s era in China was solely motivated by political needs. But all these method, use of military and non-military means, acquisition of territories, participation in world economic markets, internationalization of American culture, disarmaments agreement, all were to construct a new world order according to American ideological patterns. South American writer, Manuel Ugarte has rightly summed up the whole phenomenon in these words; The flexibility of North American imperialism in its external activities, and the diverse forms which it adopts according to the circumstances, the racial composition and social conditions of the people upon which its action is exercised, is one of the most significant phenomenon of this century;Ã¢â¬ ¦(p. 139) References Blum, John Morton. The National Experience. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1985. Connor, William P. United States annexation of the Philippines: a reinterpretation. [Kingston] University of Rhode Island. 1972 Edward G. Lowry. Trade Follows the Film. Saturday Evening Post. 198. (November, 1925) 12-13. Frank Costigliola. U. S. Cultural Exapsion in an Era of Systematic Upheaval in Major Problems in American Foreign: documents and essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000. Harding, Warren G. Inaugural Address. (March 4, 1921) available at Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Websitewww. yale. edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/harding. htm Hughes. Debt and German Reparations: Hughes Calls on Private Experts for Help, 1922 in Major Problems in American Foreign Relations. Hunt, Michael. Ideology and U. S. Foreign Policy. Yale University Press; 1988. Manuel Ugarte. The Destiny of a Continent. Catherine A. Phillips (tr. ). New York. Knopf. 1925. Merrill, Dennis Paterson, Thomas G. Major problems in American foreign relations: documents and essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000. Morison, Samuel E. The Oxford History of American People. New York, Oxford University Press. 1965. Nearing, Scott Freeman, Joseph. Dollar diplomacy; a study in American imperialism. New York, B. W. Huebsch and the Viking Press. 1925. Rosenberg, Emily S. Foner, Eric. Spreading the American Dream. New York : Hill and Wang, 1982. U. S. Department of Commerce. in Major Problems in American Foreign: documents and essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000. Volker, Karren Zola, Jaye. The annexation of the Philippines, Denver, CO : Center for Teaching International Relations, 1999. Zimmermann,Warren. Ã¢â¬Å"Jingoes, goo-goos, and the rise of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s empire. Ã¢â¬ The Wilson Quarterly 22. Spring 1998. How to cite American Promotionalism, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
THE BASICS PARTS Essay An organization it is composed by an operating core and an administrative component made up by managers (strategic apex and middle line) and analysts (deconstructed? and staff), partially responsible for their work. The strategic apex is composed by people having overall responsibility for the organization; they have the widest perspective of the organization. In Nikkei, the Board, Vichy is elected by shareholders, is the ultimate decision- making body of the Company, excluding to those issues reserved to the shareholders. The Board is also in charged for reviewing and establishing procedures in relation to ensure that the Company management and employees Who work in a legal and ethically responsible way. Recently, the Board has had be,even 10 to 14 directors, this size allows diversity of experience Without slowing individual accountability and effective discussion. In relation to the operating core which is composed by the people doing the key work, in Nikkei there are more than 800,000 employees in 46 countries all around the world. This workforce is at the same time distributed in the approximately 00 contract factories where the 3 brands principal products (footwear, apparel and equipment) are fabricated. The middle line is composed by the people who occupy the managerial post, in the firm we are analyzing this is formed by the USBI (Sustainable Business and Innovation), this team is made up of about 130 people who work closely with dedicated sustainability specialists who are integrated into other parts of the organization, such as retail, logistics and information technology. Its focal point is to permit IN EKE, Inc. o prosper in an efficient economy they do this through a atria structure, with defined priorities for each team. The USB function reports to the vice president of Sustainable Business and Innovation, who reports directly to the NIKKEI, Inc. CEO and to the Corporate Responsibility Committee of the Board Of Directors. The deconstructive.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
An Overview to Chaos Theory in Sociology Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics; however, it has applications in several disciplines, including sociology and other social sciences. In the social sciences, chaos theory is the study of complex non-linear systems of social complexity. It is not about disorder but rather about very complicated systems of order. Nature, including some instances of social behavior and social systems, is highly complex, and the only prediction you can make is that it is unpredictable. Chaos theory looks at this unpredictability of nature and tries to make sense of it. Chaos theory aims to find the general order of social systems, and particularly social systems that are similar to each other. The assumption here is that the unpredictability in a system can be represented as overall behavior, which gives some amount of predictability, even when the system is unstable. Chaotic systems are not random systems. Chaotic systems have some kind of order, with an equation that determines overall behavior. The first chaos theorists discovered that complex systems often go through a kind of cycle, even though specific situations are rarely duplicated or repeated. For example, say there is a city of 10,000 people. In order to accommodate these people, a supermarket is built, two swimming pools are installed, a library is erected, and three churches go up. In this case, these accommodations please everybody and equilibrium is achieved. Then a company decides to open a factory on the outskirts of town, opening jobs for 10,000 more people. The town then expands to accommodate 20,000 people instead of 10,000. Another supermarket is added, as are two more swimming pools, another library, and three more churches. The equilibrium is thus maintained. Chaos theorists study this equilibrium, the factors that affect this type of cycle, and what happens (what the outcomes are) when the equilibrium is broken. Qualities of a Chaotic System A chaotic system has three simple defining features: Chaotic systems are deterministic. That is, they have some determining equation ruling their behavior.Chaotic systems are sensitive to initial conditions. Even a very slight change in the starting point can lead to significant different outcomes.Chaotic systems are not random, nor disorderly. Truly random systems are not chaotic. Rather, chaos has a send of order and pattern. Concepts There are several key terms and concepts used in chaos theory: Butterfly effect (also called sensitivity to initial conditions): The idea that even the slightest change in the starting point can lead to greatly different results or outcomes.Attractor: Equilibrium within the system. It represents a state to which a system finally settles.Strange attractor: A dynamic kind of equilibrium which represents some kind of trajectory upon which a system runs from situation to situation without ever settling down. Applications in Real-Life Chaos theory, which emerged in the 1970s, has impacted several aspects of real-life in its short life thus far and continues to impact all sciences. For instance, it has helped answer previously unsolvable problems in quantum mechanics and cosmology. It has also revolutionized the understanding of heart arrhythmias and brain function. Toys and games have also developed from chaos research, such as the Sim line of computer games (SimLife, SimCity, SimAnt, etc.).
Sunday, November 24, 2019
A sociological perspective essays When a disaster befalls a society, inevitably the event becomes charged with emotional consequences of how one, or a community deals with the devesation of the situation. Behind the conseqences are reasonings that are able to justify the outcome of the event and gives it cause, context, content, and meaning. Disasters that occur within a cultural atmosphere can be classified into subsections: that of natural disaster, and of man made disaster; both posing as different problems, but resulting with the same degree of traumatic impressions left within a communitity. No one can calculate when these catastrophies will strike or when they are scheduled on the calendar, both forms of disaster are unpredictable and are able to catch civilizations completely off gaurd. They counteract the harmony and disturb the flow of societies, uprooting any means of establishment and community. In this paper I will asses a comparason between two major disasters in United States history. The disaster in 1976 at Buffalo Creek, in West Virginia, and a more well known disaster: The World Trade Center Bombing on September 11th, 2002. I will examin how two events, staged in completely different settings and with different stories, result in similar impacts within the cultures, harping on the negative consequences that scarred the lives of people who lived within these two seperate communities. It will examin these two traumas, one from the big city of New York, the ther from a little town in West Virginia, for the similiar insights they provide about the role that culture plays in the shaping of the experience of collective trauma, and the facilitation of recovery from these unexpected ruptures in social life In Buffalo Creek, Kai Erikson travells to this small area to investigate the sociological impact of the disasterous flood that took place in 1976. Erikson deals with the question of what happens to a community when it is faced with the conse...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Theme Park Management - Assignment Example The maximum number of tourists are from Germany (about 50 percent), with Switzerland contributing 22 percent and France, a close second, with 18 percent. The rest 10 percent constitute visitors from other countries. Given these facts, the researcher has attempted to find out if the planning process of the theme park laid any stress on sustainable development of the local community. The research, therefore, aimed at evaluating to what extent the local residents were involved in the planning process of the park, both then and now, and the perspective of the local residents and stakeholders about their involvement, again both then and now. The researcher has used a positivistic research philosophy with a mainly deductive research approach, to establish the research objectives. Primary research (interviews, questionnaire) and secondary research (review of travel literature) were used for the project. The logic employed was that since the number of people was relatively large, a quantitative approach was employed. Though the researcher has not excluded the importance of qualitative research and in fact has included few interviews in trying to establish the aim of the project. In every research it is important to know about the research approach, how the data was collected and analysed, as the results of the research will vary accordingly. (Language Center. Writing up Research Method and Research Design.) For example, if the efficiency of the voting system in a democracy has to be determined and if a questionnaire survey is being provided to the people across the country, then it is a much better approach than randomly interviewing people. Two factors, one the huge base and the second sectional bias and prejudice will affect the results of the interviews. However, if the questionnaire has options marked as excellent, very good and good, then it gives no option to the respondent to answer in the negative. Hence, though the quantitative research method would be the best suited, it may lead to wrong conclusions, because the questions did not have exhaustive options. What is generally agreed on is that there is no 'perfect' research method. Data collection, however, is best representative when both quantitative and qualitative data is collected. So, interviews, which tell the 'inside story' is essential to understand the analysis. (Carter McNamara, Copyright 1997-2008.) In whatever which way the data is collected, analysis is best when the process starts working backward that is from the research goals. Starting this way, helps to streamline the thought, organise the data and focus on the analysis. In the Europapark project, though the aim was to determine the involvement of the local community in the initial as well as the present planning and implementation of the theme park project, the research objectives were fragmented into: Determining tourist attraction in a theme park and ways in which the local community can be involved in the project. Identifying the actual involvement of the local community in the planning process, in the design phase and in the current period. Determining the local community's perception of their involvement in the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Educating High School Students About The Importance Of Contraceptives - Research Paper Example Providing sexual education to high school students on the significant of using contraceptives is crucial because it is one way of maintaining their health. The health of students is essential because it will enable students to study well in schools without any health complications. Earlier pregnancy to students may lead to health risks especially to young mothers. The research study indicates that a woman is supposed to start giving birth at least when she is more than 18 years old, but about 15 million teenagers bear children when they have not yet reached the required child bearing age. This poses a health risks to them, and the risk to younger mothers is higher than the risk to the mother above 25 to 25 years. For example, the maternal mortality rate for teenagers between 13 to 16 years of age is three times higher than females in their earlier or late twenties. Distributing and educating high school students on the significant of contraceptives will reduce the sexually transmitte d diseases such as HIV/ AIDS and other diseases. STDs pose dangerous threats notably to sexually active students. Most of the high school students are sexually active because of physical changes and peer group influences from their friends. Many of them do not understand the significant and the way of protecting themselves from unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Many societies are frown on issues of premarital sex; thus most high school students may feel ashamed or embarrassed in case they make efforts of seeking help about the use of contraceptives. Therefore, increasing awareness through educating students on the significant of health reproductive and HIV/ AIDS prevention is crucial (Hartman, Monasterio, and Hwang (233). For instance, the school my introduce this programs as school curriculum or provide mass education activities at least once in a month to all students. This is vital because it will raise awareness and enable students to engage in safe sexual intercourse. Sex educatio n on the use of contraceptives is one way through which students become aware of the problems associated with unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Distributing contraceptives such as condoms and educating students on having safe sex is vital. This is because it will enable students to make healthy sexual decisions. Many parents ignore to offer guidance and counseling or teach their teenagers on the importance of using contraceptives because of fear and believe that they will encourage sexual behaviors to their children (Bruess and Jerrold 314). However, educating teenagers on the importance of having safe sex is essential because high schools students already know about sex. For instance, the increased technological advancement especially media and Internet have exposed many teenagers to various sexual behaviors. Therefore, they know everything about sex;
Monday, November 18, 2019
American history - - about The Black Cat - Essay Example My interaction with the narrator as his pet was awesome at first. The fact that I was following him step by step means that we were compatible in various aspects. It felt good when I was being favored through exclusion from harassment while others in the house were being mistreated (Poe and Andrewasine 79). Being singled out when others were being mistreated always gave me a reason to stick to the narrator. It also strengthened the instincts between us. I felt special by being singled out among the pets that he had and even introduced me to his wife as his favorite pet of all. Our relationship, however, was mysterious and also supernatural in nature an element that was also evident in the gothic genre. The emotions of the narrator, however, ruined the friendship that was in existence and our sound interaction changed drastically to become sour. The person I was always comfortable when we were together became the person I was to run from. The drunkenness changed the narrator I knew to someone close to a murderer (Poe and Andrewasine 76). It was unbelievable to see him attacking me and even plucking one of my eyes irrespective of our cordial relationship that had been in existence. This interaction taught enlightened me that people changes and there have been something sinister with the narrator. It is weird for a close ally to become a monster within a very short time frame. The monstrous aspect resembles the gothic set up aspect and element. With such mistreatments, it was evident that the best way of living with the narrator is avoiding him. However, this interaction created dilemma in my life on the best mode of living that would assure me of survival. This is because after he perceived that I was avoiding him he plucked one of my eyes (Bloomfield 249). On the other hand, it is very insecure to stay close to such a person. However, it was unbelievable seeing the narrator holding me in a manner that
Friday, November 15, 2019
Religious Views on Right to Die Julian Martin Public Policy: Right to Die The right to die is one of the most controversial topics addressed by government that has been interpreted into the state laws that have either debated the right or allowed it, however recently with the Ã¢â¬Å"Gonzales vs. OregonÃ¢â¬ case where instead of the case being on constitutional grounds where it conflicts with the right of life, was put mainly on administrative law grounds which was shocking for many people. It helped reestablish the power of the Ã¢â¬Å"Death with Dignity ActÃ¢â¬ , which allows anyone who has a terminal disease to have the permission through voluntary help from a physician to be given lethal medications. The idea of ending someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life out of mercy for them with their permission has always been an idea that seems very favorable to those who know they will die and donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to suffer, but also of issue to other people especially concerning their religion. Some diseases such as several forms of cancer, Ebola, Creutzfeldt-jakob, AIDS, and others all have a form of pain it inflicts on people either cognitively or through actual unbearable pain that puts into the idea of allowing people to be able to kill themselves civilly and with dignity rather than have them suffer extensively and prolonging the inevitable. Most states, however, see the matter differently and do not allow for terminal patients to kill themselves through the careful attention of a physician who would administer the medications to them, for most argue that it conflicts with the freedom of life as it is protected through the first amendment of the constitution, and although many bills every year pass to enact the right to die in other states, most never are passed. Religion also comes into play when arguing to make the right to die nationwide as it conflicts according to parts of some religions. Christianity and Catholicism both recognize suicide as a form of sin and although it is assisted and done through careful procedures administered from physicians, it is mostly still seen as wrong through most churchÃ¢â¬â¢s and ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s and CatholicÃ¢â¬â¢s views. Hinduism has varying points of view on assisted dying as they say it conflicts with the body and soul separating at separate times, along with it affecting both the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s and the patients karma. Some religions, however, are actually very tolerant with the right and actually try to advocate for it to passed as a law, for example, Methodists recognize the right to die as a form of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom, Unitarian Universalists see it as the right of self-determination and allow it, and Evangelical believe it as a moral thing to do, so while most major religions wo uld not normally approve, other religions recognize it through morals. Rabbi Yitzchok Breitowitz also reveals the Jewish standing on the right to die and stresses that, the preservation of life, also known as pikuach nefesh in the Torah, is a very important thing that passes up basically all other commandments of the Torah. Breitowitz also explains that because as a Jewish belief, they believe in the soul rather than just the body, because they see the body as just a vessel for the personÃ¢â¬â¢s true spiritual essence. Judaism doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the notion of sustaining life for longer than a human should be alive, because Judaism attempts to try and find a balance between the great mitzvah of prolonging life and the recognition that life may be unbearable or difficult as itÃ¢â¬â¢s said in the Torah. The Torah also states that the body and the life a person is not our own to do whatever with and with that, have no moral right to kill or hurt anyone else, or to hurt, kill, maim authorize another person to do those things to the person. Frank Pavone, the international Director for the organization Ã¢â¬Å"priests for lifeÃ¢â¬ states the Christian view on the right to die comes from the idea that their life is not truly thereÃ¢â¬â¢s to own, including their death. Pavone states that although the body is in a sense the personÃ¢â¬â¢s possession as it was given to them by God, it is still not their body alone as they are not the source of their own existence and is accountable for it to God. With not truly owning the body, Christians do not have the right to claim they have a right to die because a right is a moral claim and that there is no claim on death, rather it has a claim on them and that to this idea, Christians donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the authority to prolong their life. Damien Keown, a professor of Buddhist ethics at Goldsmiths College in the University of London, expresses the BuddhistÃ¢â¬â¢s stand on the right to die and whether it should be legalized or not by stating that Buddhists generally oppose assisted suicide and euthanasia. This is due to the teachings that show the person that it is morally wrong to destroy human life, including oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own, even if the intentians are just by attempting to end suffering, insteasd they are taught to have a great respect for life in general even if it is not being lived in an optimal way and by helping another or giving the authorization or being killed in a humane way, it affects both the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s and the patients karma. Buddhists also believe that life really has no reason to be extended further than is required and that one should not go to any extrodinary lengths to try and preserve the life as all that matters is the spirit being in line with life and sustaining good morals and having go od karma. Ayman Shabana, a member of the Islamic Legal Studies Program at Harvard Law School, shows the Islamic point of view on rejecting the legalizing of the right to die by stating that the Islamic teachings condemn the idea physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia because Islam Teaches the idea that God alone and determines how long someone should live and when they should die, which leads to a general reluctance that any kind of idea to end life prematurely because itÃ¢â¬â¢s believed by many islams that those decisions should only be held only in the hands of God. The stand on the right to die is also influenced greatly by the belief that the suffering a terminal patient goes through is beneficial as there is a notion that the person has no idea whats good for them or not which leads to the traditional idea of the suffering viewed as a test of fate. The United Church of Christ, however, is one of the few minorities that support the passing of the right to die to be in all states, because according to Reverend Timothy Tutt, the senior minister at Westmoreland Congregational United Church of Christ, they are taught to believe that each and every single person approaches God on their own terms, including the end of life. Despite the minority groups and religions that do support the right to die as both a moral idea and decision, many major religions do not agree with the passing of any bill that would allow this method of death as it would violate their First Amendment right of religion and until the day that major religions such as Christianity or Judaism accept the idea, the right to die will never be seen in any other states other than the few that have already passed it.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
It is close to 100 degrees; it has been at least ten hours since the last break. The woman working next to you severed her finger on the machine today, and the wage for one day of working will not be enough to buy a decent meal. How thrilling does it sound to work in a sweatshop? This is the only option for most women and children working in the third world, to support their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. There is very little, if anything being done to resolve this shocking situation. No person should be exposed to this type of work atmosphere. Sweatshops are inhumane working environments. Women and children are most often the ones affected by the cruelty of sweatshops. Child laborers in most countries serve to support their families to maintain the ordinary standard of living (Hartman). In third world countries, it is, in a sense, customary for children to do the bulk of the work to support their families. Women and children had to work in sweatshops to support their families (Olson, Wladaver-Morgan 525). When families immigrated to the United States, there were not many jobs to be had; their only choice for survival was for the women and the children of the family to work in sweatshops for bare minimum wages. Women and children are most closely associated with the abuses of sweatshops. Wages for women and children in sweatshops are far from reasonable. Women and children always seem to suffer the worst effects in this work industry. According to Enderle, Ã¢â¬Å"Firms that practice child labor tend to stunt the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and they preclude their developing and rudimentary skills learned in grade school so they can get decent jobs when they are adults and lead fulfilling livesÃ¢â¬ (274). Children that are working in sweatshops are not de... ...ed a Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ solution, but chances of this are slim. Works Cited Enderle, Georges. International Business Ethics. Notre Dame, Indiana: The University of Notre Dame Press. 1999. Hartman, Laura Pincus. Ã¢â¬Å"The Ethical Challenge of Global Labor Standards.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Employment Discrimination Law 2.1 (winter 2000) 77. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Roesch Library, Dayton. 16 Oct. 2002. . Moran, Theodore H. Beyond Sweatshops. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2002. Olson, James S., and Susan Wladaver-Morgan. Dictionary of United States Economic History. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1992. 523-524. Wangel, Arne. Ã¢â¬Å"Work Hazards and Safety Organization in the Third World.Ã¢â¬ Acta Sociologica 31.4 (1988) 343-349. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Roesch Library, Dayton. 16 Oct. 2002. .
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The hospitality industry is one area where a large number of managers and chefs have become entrepreneurs and successful owners of their own businesses. Being a futuristic person I handle things with great patience, which is the main positive sign that strongly relates me to this esteemed industry. A constant learning process would lead me to improvise on the professional skills required to survive in this field. Over the years, I see potentials for learning in every situation I find myself. The greatest motivation for me in applying for the Advance Diploma program in Ã¢â¬Ëhospitality and tourism operations management' is the opportunity it presents me to get exposed to the travel and tourism sector which is highly associated with the hospitality industry. This sector has grown leaps and bounds over the years and has promising growth potential. I believe that this Advance Diploma course will help me to achieve my ultimate goal, which is to develop myself to establish a career as a manager of a big concern or become an entrepreneur. To fulfill this goal however, I must develop my knowledge required to pilot major problems in this industry and learn to solve complex issues through an integrated approach. The hotelier must have a love for humanity, for humans show their worst side when they are tired and hungry. Being gracious to guests as well as to associates, shows a mastery of the art of hospitality. All these positive efforts had given me great exposure to the core areas of management in terms of all the four major departments Ã¢â¬â food and beverage, front office, food production and housekeeping to run and expand hotel business in this competitive world you need to have thorough knowledge of management as well. It will be an interesting work place where each day offers new challenges with never a dull moment, thereby making it extremely enjoyable. The industry offers a well rounded personality development for the individual and although there is glamour and show business, there are also a lot of hard work and long hours as well. I have demonstrated capacity and a unique ability in me to thrive in the midst of challenges. I believe this attitude would be of help particularly when real-life work challenges are presented and discussed. MY AIM: Business has come to me from my family. It has always fascinated me from my childhood. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my dream as well as aim too to open a chain of restaurants in famous cities at the world level as because working at 5-star hotels, luxurious resorts, restaurants, clubs, on cruise lines, and more are always there in my imagination of work. And hence to full fill my objective and to quench my thirst for knowledge, diploma studies in hotel management will definitely help me keep up-to-date with the fast moving world. PREFERENCE FOR HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT: Keen interest in hotel management right from my teen age inspired me to develop my career for the same. The Diploma in hospitality management course taught at Georgian College, Canada, which provides a launch pad for progression to the hotel and resort Business in India. All business is competitive; companies and organization are striving to maximize the return on the application of their limited resources. To make more profit, to gain market share or to position themselves as being the no. 1 company in their field, whatever their objectives they will only be achieved by the application of sound management. PREFERENCE FOR CANADA: The world of today, as we know is a tough world Expertise and specialization are of great demands in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s era of competition. International exposure, study in depth and practical experience in the field of hotel management are the most important factors for a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s career and above all education from developed and advance country in the world, where the latest and most advance equipment facilities and opportunities for learning and acquiring detailed knowledge in a systematic way are available, which is not the case in other country. I feel CANADA is the pioneer and best place to full fill this requirement as all the latest trends are almost always seen emerging from this part of the globe and the rest of the world seems to follow suit, main view of the aforesaid background, I have found the course at Georgian college most existing, interesting and ideally suited to my requirements and ambitions. I look forward to have a meaningful tenure, which would help me launch a successful career. To conclude with a wide range of interests but definite goals, I am attracted to the advance diploma program at Georgian College which would suit me well and offer me perfect academic environment. It would be a great privilege if I am granted the opportunity to pursue my graduate studies at your reputed institution and I am quite confident that I will match the high standards set by your college.
Friday, November 8, 2019
WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a controversial film that many viewers can relate to, the living situation is upsetting and the acting in the film is touching. The film WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a film everyone should see for a number of reasons, first the film contains useful information viewers shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t miss, next because the characters and their situations are much like real life, viewers can often relate. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a controversial film that touches many issues, viewers can often relate to the sensitive subjects. An example is having a loved one that is mentally challenged, while trying to maintain a healthy life. Arnie the mentally challenged youngest brother of the family was taken care of by his older brother Gilbert, although the responsibility was often hard and overwhelming. For example many times Arnie would climb to the top of the water tower if not constantly watched. Gilbert had a lot of responsibility and was waiting to explode considering Gilberts mother left all responsibility to him while she became a Ã¢â¬Å"beached whaleÃ¢â¬ as Gilbert would put it. Gilbert was often ashamed of his mother. A good example of Gilbert exploding would be when Gilbert almost ran his youngest sister over for giving him the middle finger. The film WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a good example of showing how others can be deprived or held back from the world considering, Gilbert and his family came from a town where not many people came around, and small things in life were appreciated for example, the sunsets or watching the campers as they come through their town. The Grapes were living a bored life with no change, but this would soon turn around. The living situation in the film WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is disturbing, although many viewers may relate. The motherly tasks have all been placed on Gilberts shoulders like the shopping, cleaning, working, and most impor... Free Essays on Whats Eating Gilbert Grape Free Essays on Whats Eating Gilbert Grape WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a controversial film that many viewers can relate to, the living situation is upsetting and the acting in the film is touching. The film WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a film everyone should see for a number of reasons, first the film contains useful information viewers shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t miss, next because the characters and their situations are much like real life, viewers can often relate. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a controversial film that touches many issues, viewers can often relate to the sensitive subjects. An example is having a loved one that is mentally challenged, while trying to maintain a healthy life. Arnie the mentally challenged youngest brother of the family was taken care of by his older brother Gilbert, although the responsibility was often hard and overwhelming. For example many times Arnie would climb to the top of the water tower if not constantly watched. Gilbert had a lot of responsibility and was waiting to explode considering Gilberts mother left all responsibility to him while she became a Ã¢â¬Å"beached whaleÃ¢â¬ as Gilbert would put it. Gilbert was often ashamed of his mother. A good example of Gilbert exploding would be when Gilbert almost ran his youngest sister over for giving him the middle finger. The film WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is a good example of showing how others can be deprived or held back from the world considering, Gilbert and his family came from a town where not many people came around, and small things in life were appreciated for example, the sunsets or watching the campers as they come through their town. The Grapes were living a bored life with no change, but this would soon turn around. The living situation in the film WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Gilbert Grape is disturbing, although many viewers may relate. The motherly tasks have all been placed on Gilberts shoulders like the shopping, cleaning, working, and most impor...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Hope Against Racism essays He was a white man in a Confederate flag T-shirt come to a rally of the Ku Klux Klan. She was a face in the crowd, a black teen-ager who wanted to ``verbally harass him.'' But the crowd became a mob. They descended upon him, pummeled him to the ground, started stomping him with their feet and hitting him with signposts. And Keshia Thomas faced a decision: to join the mob or to be a human being. This was Keshia's choice: She fell atop the prostrate man, used her body to shield him from the blows. Ask why she did it and she says, ``I was just doing what my parents taught me: Do what's right. You can't change a man's view by killing him.'' It happened a week ago in Ann Arbor, Mich., the compelling sideshow to a human carnival. Fifteen Ku Klux Klansmen had come to rally for the cause of hatred. But an estimated 1,000 anti-Klan demonstrators, a multiethnic tidal wave of outraged humanity, went after them. They broke windows, threw rocks and eventually had to be driven back by police using tear gas. Eleven people were arrested; at least two were reported injured. It's a story with multiple morals: that we must defend free speech, especially for those views we abhor; that it is too frighteningly easy for a rational group to become a blood-lusting mob; that supporting a noble cause doesn't give you license to beat a man's head in with a signpost. But the most compelling lesson is embodied by Keshia's choice. She is, in some ways, a standard-issue teen-ager. Eighteen years old, laughs easily, dreams of becoming a forest ranger, wants to go to college but worries that she can't afford it. She says when she rushed at the man in the Confederate flag shirt, ``I wanted to say, `what did I ever do to you? There's no reason to fear me.''' About that man, we know next to nothing at this writing. Not his name, not his hometown, not his Klan affiliation, if any. We do know that that shirt, worn in that place, was provocative. And tha...
Monday, November 4, 2019
The Art of Skill - Essay Example The camera claimed supreme ability to recreate reality, and accordingly art took different direction. Taking cues from Duchamp and Warhol, the artist Jeffrey Koons developed a style of art that was completely unreliant upon personal skill and instead relied upon reproduction and appropriation. Several reasons for the devaluing of skill in art include the rise of such artists as Koons who intentionally create art that is made without skill. Beech also states that contemporary art itself is involved in taking skills way from artists. While Beech does not view Koons in such a way of devaluing skills, I wish to argue to the contrary in part of my overall argument. Beyond BeechÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, I would also like to state that it is part the mass production of various artists in universities that is devaluing skill to an extent. In discussing an exhibit by Jeffrey Koons, the reviewer Lynne Cooke notes that Koons sculptures were Ã¢â¬Å"executed by highly skilled craftsmen in small factories in Italy working, under the supervision of the artist, to two dimensional images which Koons provided as modelsÃ¢â¬ (246). Notice that the reviewer states that the craftsmen were Ã¢â¬Å"highly skilled.Ã¢â¬ This is interesting to note, especially when considering that an artist can achieve fame without being able to create the artwork himself. The people who actually put the physical labor into creating the pieces were simply called craftsmen. In considering this, we can see how actual skill in art is held at no value. The people with the skill who were involved with the project were not artists. They simply handled the technical aspects of the creation of the pieces. Ideologically speaking, it is not necessary in any way for the artist to be skilled in any way in order to be successful. Perhaps it is because Koons i s unskilled that he is has the success to the extent that he does. Koons is by far one of the most
Friday, November 1, 2019
Xerox Corporation Case Study 03066 - Essay Example One of the major and unexpected cases was of Xerox Inc., a huge reputed global technology entity. It was reported that the company practiced creative accounting techniques to manipulate its performance during the period from 1997 to 2000. Considering the case, below presented is a critical review of the case via investigating the underlying matter deeply with its circumstances and consequences. The discussion will be an effort of aligning and comparing case evidences with the defined code of conduct in the regard by authorities and authentic literature of the underlying discipline. Being a global entity in document technology business, Xerox inc., is known for quality and innovation in the field (Mui, 2012). Founded in 1906, Xerox is currently working with around 140000 employees, 12000 active patents and reported $19.5 Billion revenue for the year 2014 (Xerox, 2015). The company got entangled in an accounting scandal for the period of 1997-2000 by SEC. At that time, companyÃ¢â¬â¢s worth was 92,500 employees, 87th rank in Fortune 500 and reported $18.7 billion sales for the year 2000 (Jessup, & Nance, 2011). Known for innovation in document technology, Xerox deals in a variety of products and services related to the digital documentation measures (Xerox, 2014). The portfolio of the company holds mainly ranges of printing devices, scanning machines, communication devices, publishing systems (Jessup, & Nance, 2011) and a wide range of offered outsource services as well (Girod, Alter, Harris and Junglas, 2011). Claiming to be the leader in document technology, Xerox admits the volatile nature of its business due to the association with the ever-changing technology. Girod, Alter, Harris, and Junglas, (2011) suggest that technology businesses work under high pressures of current competitive scenario. Slow paced innovation, technologically outdated products,
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
The Philosophy of Knowledge - Essay Example The evolving nature of knowledge can be considered to be a manifestation of its highly unstable nature where it undergoes frequent changes over time. While this may be the case, knowledge is also a means through which cultures are developed and this is done through the transmission of what is believed by a certain society to future generations. When knowledge is compared to truth, it can be suggested that the latter should be able to withstand the test of time and retain its basic truths (Church, 1962, p.322). Such situations tend to be extremely rare considering that the changes in society and the environment often ensure that opinions concerning different aspects of life often change over time. Truth is what human beings hold to be unchanging and this means that it is essential for it to remain constant in order to ensure its credibility (McGarry 2010, p.8). The argument for the constant nature of truth was the belief, before the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin, it was a common belief in Europe that all creation came into being in seven days. This belief was in line with the predominantly Christian biblical teachings that were prevalent in Europe during this age. All these changed with the development of the development of the theory of evolution and it is now considered a fact that all creatures evolved from more primitive forms over millions of years. What remains to be seen is whether the theory of evolution will continue to be considered true knowledge in the near future.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Sexual assaults Essay From a Freudian point of view the rape and sexual assaults discussed in this example, stemmed from the impulses from his id which were demanding sexual gratification. Freud may have contended that Tysons id had won control of the available psychic energy coursing through his body, which neither the ego nor the superego could stop or negotiate. This sexual energy and desire from the id arguably overpowered Tysons mind and his focus was to obtain sexual satisfaction. From this perspective other illustrations of Tysons id taking control of his psychic energy are evident when considering his behaviour during his youth. Hoffer, (1998) has noted that he habitually stole from people who had something he wanted, and assaulted others who tried to stop him. In these instances the demands Tysons id forced him to take whatever he wanted, even if it was to the detriment of others. However, it is ironic to note that these impulses from his id which forced him into engaging in this type of behaviour to satisfy its demands were the very same impulses that gained him respect, fame and fortune inside the boxing ring. Arguably, his ids desire to retain the title and maintain the status and respect he now had, facilitated him to achieving a high position in life. Paradoxically this argument lends a little more credence to Horneys theory of inner safety. Arguably, Tyson was indeed being driven by demands from his id in a Freudian sense, but these demands were bound now by the rules and regulations set out by the boxing authorities and this framework provided him with a sense of safety. Boxing protocol ensured that Tysons safety was not under threat and this enabled him to perform his aggression in a controlled, supervised and acceptable manner. As stated earlier Tyson was a victim of bullying. However it was also noted that he reached the stage where he himself became the bully. Younger weaker children were the first targets Tyson chose to assault, but he quickly progressed to older children when he found he could beat them easily. His fighting ability, which was swift and vicious, resulted in him gaining respect throughout the neighbourhood and becoming an accepted member of the gangs. It could be argued from both of the points of view in this discussion that Tyson was using defence mechanisms in order to abate his anxiety. From a Freudian perspective the bullies who taunted Tyson made him feel inferior causing him biological anxiety. The bullying that he suffered resulted in his ego feeling threatened and losing its balance of power, and in order to regain this balance, his defensive reaction was to eliminate the source of the threat. This example of Tyson targeting younger weaker children is a good illustration of Freuds defence mechanism of displacement. Corey, (2001 p72) notes that one way for a person to cope with anxiety is discharge impulses from a threatening object to a safer target. However, Horneys description of the defence mechanism Tyson used here would be slightly different. From this point of view it would be described as compulsive aggression. Accordingly, people who display this type of aggression are making an effort to hide any sign of weakness or fear by moving against people. The compulsive needs of this type of individual according to Horneys theory, is such that they have a need to dominate and control others. ( Fadiman Frager, 1994 p141) It could be argued here that every time Tyson beat a child who taunted him he regained his feeling of safety. Subsequently, each time Tyson felt the need to regain this feeling he repeated the actions. A further reinforcement Tyson may have found from these actions was the added bonus of gaining respect from his peers and becoming an accepted member of his immediate surroundings. Arguably this exact pattern of events brought him success, fame and fortune inside the boxing ring. This huge money earning period of Tysons life enabled him to enjoy a lavish lifestyle. It was noted by (Hoffer, 1998) that Tyson had a passion for collecting expensive possessions. He owned Siberian tigers, cars, fur coats and mansions. From a Freudian point of view Tyson could be said to be fixated in his Anal stage of psychosexual development. This stage of development according to Freuds theory happens between the ages of one and three. An important aspect of this stage is the toilet training of a child. A child learns during this time to control his sphincter and bladder and could find that he is chastised for mistakes or praised for conforming to his parents wishes. The child may pass a bowel movement and feel immensely proud of it he may then seek praise from his parent but feel dejection when he did not receive it. This situation may render the child with feelings of deflation and rejection. Fixation in this stage according to (Corey, 2001) can then occur. Corey, goes on to note that this can manifest in later life as a need to collect possessions for which one can feel proud so that the earlier feelings of deflation and rejection do not reoccur. Arguably though, this aspect of Freuds theory would be difficult to support with empirical evidence. Most people would be unable to recall with any degree of accuracy the toilet training methods employed by their parents. Horneys theory of cultural and environmental factors surrounding a persons childhood having a critical effect on their behaviour in adulthood would be easier to provide evidence for.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Divided between the two women, Ethan Frome is a highly confused man. He seeks to find some Ã¢â¬Å"ease and freedomÃ¢â¬ represented by Mattie, but society would not allow him to do so. Society instead compels him to accept its burden represented for him in the shape of Zeena, although it means the ruin of his life. The social pressure, whether it takes the form of conventional morality or any other forms, offers Ethan blind opposition at every turn, leashing his actions Ã¢â¬Å"like the jerk of a chainÃ¢â¬ (p.3). Aware that he has not even the money to take Mattie with him to the West, for instance, Ethan starts on foot for Starkfield to ask Andrew Hale, the village carpenter, for an advance on some lumber. In this episode, he is soon intercepted on the way by Mrs. Hale, who, appealing to his sympathy by a few kind words, baffles his attempt at the very moment when his is about to revolt. Throughout the novel, this Ã¢â¬Å"invisible handÃ¢â¬ of social pressure is constantly imaged to Ethan as a prison: Ã¢â¬Å"The inexorable facts closed in on him like prison-warders handcuffing a convict. There was no way out-none. He was a prisoner for life.Ã¢â¬ (p.134). A little bit later in the story, Ethan, watching Mattie's trunk being carried away in a sleigh to the station, has the feeling that Ã¢â¬Å" his heart was bound with cords which an unseen hand was tightening with every ick of the clock.Ã¢â¬ (p.147). Again he expresses the same emotion later when he says to Mattie as they make the way to the station, Ã¢â¬Å"I'm tied hand and foot, Mattie. There isn't a thing I can do.Ã¢â¬ (p.158) Because Ethan suffers from inner conflict in his own mind, the group pressure of convention and morality seems to have little, if any, power over him. If, indeed, social force had been involved in h... ...f her mind were as incalculable as the flit of a bird in the branchesÃ¢â¬ (p.46). To Ethan Frome, Mattie is Ã¢â¬Å"his one ray of lightÃ¢â¬ (p.134) which gives meaning to his bleak existence but is to be extinguished by Zeena's cruelty. The image of light is further reinforce by the bright moon. Which is mentioned over and over in the novel. Ethan Frome is the only book Edith Wharton ever wrote that the author's name is readily -and deservedly- associated with, and it has in fact been held in higher esteem than any other of her novels. This book is a brilliant makes a use of imagery and symbolism. The destiny of human existence which Ethan can never solve is more clearly sharpened by Wharton's skillful use of contrasting images and symbols. More significantly, it is by her use of this symbolic imagery that the characterization of the novel can be fully understand.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
MBA Admissions Essays - Look Out World! Ã Write a candid description of yourself, stressing those personal qualities, assets, and liabilities that you feel will influence your study for an MBA. Describe what you consider to be your most important professional and / or academic achievement to date. Ã If one were to ask my friends to describe me they would describe me as a very pleasant, diverse, active and intelligent woman. I think one of my most distinguishing characteristics is the diversity of experiences I possess. I am a science student with a flair for the arts. I am a woman with technical aptitude and an interest in management. I also have a passion for traveling and understanding different cultures of the world. All these elements have given me a very broad outlook, with varying degrees of knowledge in a range of topics. I strongly believe that although some are not related directly, all these qualities will influence my graduate work. Ã My Engineering degree has given a strong foundation to my analytical skills since civil design involves a lot of long, complex and intricate calculations and the application of basic math skills. Over the past four years, I have been working part-time with my family firm, SnMTech Systems. I am also the co-founder and active member with FOE - Friends of the Environment. I have assisted in the installation of Enterprise-wide Resource Planning (ERP) System at Blotech, a major Engineering Company. More than what I have studied in school and college, it has been these experiences that have shaped the person that I am today. Ã Ã I believe that this unique blend of experiences has made me a woman with an original point of view. This blend has given me a broader perspective to and a good understanding of life and a goal to aim for. Among other things, I have this diversity of experience to offer Utah University. My most substantial accomplishment has been the success of the software upgradation project that I managed at SnMTech Systems Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, where I have been working as a part time Associate Intern - Management Information Systems since 1994. Ã Ã During the first two years of my work at SnMTech, I had an opportunity to observe and work with the existing system being used. Some of the software packages being used were outdated versions.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Right off the bat when reading the article it states that it's the most widely read article in sociology. The author Robert K. Merton opens his paper by first challenging certain offenses that were popular in 1938. Most of the theories that Merton has analyzed mentioned Ã¢â¬Å"biological drivesÃ¢â¬ . Some of the theorists view crime as Ã¢â¬Å"biological drivesÃ¢â¬ in which our society comes to terms with restraining it. What I found interesting, Merton doesn't agree with other theorists, he, on the other hand, argues that a person or persons drive for crime is frequently shown to be stemmed from society itself. This is when his theory or argument splits into two parts. The article refers to his Ã¢â¬Å"anomie theoryÃ¢â¬ . This hypothesis of his is looked to be explained why certain parts of societies have increased rates of criminal activity than let's say, the other half of the societies in which they appear to have decreased rates of criminal activity. Merton focuses on the relative emphasis placed on this set cultural goals society has placed as well as the institutionalized norms for achieving these goals of society. It is come to know some certain places in society have a high comparative prominence which is called cultural goals. Also, to have a low corresponding value of the norms or as well some gain the achievement of goals, which increases the rate of crimes. Merton characterizes these societies by using the terms anomie or normlessness, whereas it is explained from Ã¢â¬Å"the goal-seeking behaviorÃ¢â¬ , Merton mentions. An individual is exposed to little commands or in other words law. This turns into a repercussion for persons employing the most beneficial values including that of criminal acts in order to achieve their once again prize. The Ã¢â¬Å"strainÃ¢â¬ theory Merton discusses in this half of the article argues that some person and persons within a society are being exposed to Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ pressures that of criminal actions. Merton mentions that while it is urged as well as expected that people strive for financial riches, people of the lower class are prevented from achieving this goal. This leads to individuals to have pressure, but even then they can adapt to the strain or so-called pressures of values. Continuing of Merton briefly discusses why some types of individuals are more likely to respond to strain with crime than others. Merton's strain theory has been the subject of extensive commentary and researches the evidence for his strain theory which is mixed. Certain recent tests of this theory seem to be at it's accurate as well as the anomie theory. The anomie theory proposes that criminal activity is most seen in those who place much emphasis on cultural goals and little on the norms for achieving the goals, meaning to be successful. Before going into the article I made a note that has caught my attention about the author itself. Albert K. Cohen was a student of Robert K. Merton. I just found this to be very intriguing because some of his points or theories have been taken into account in Cohen's articles. Cohen has a particular interest and focus of criminal societies. To narrow it down, Cohen focuses more on the lower-working-class urban gangs of 1950, during that time they were the subject of attention. Cohen in the article poses a question of: Ã¢â¬Å"How can we explain the origin and content of delinquent subcultures?Ã¢â¬ Since he was a student of Merton as I said before he draws some of Merton's theory to provide his own, collective answer to the question which is often outlined throughout the article. In the first part of his theory, that is being stated in the first section of the article. Cohen provides a well-explained origin of deviant social groups. The second section applies that the theory to explain the origin and contents of man it has to be specified by gender. Cohen focuses on working-class males and urban gangs. While I was reading the parts of the article, I have noted and made some comparisons and contrasts with Merton's strain theory. Similar to Merton, Cohen argues that Ã¢â¬Å"goal blockadeÃ¢â¬ is what causes delinquency. Now Cohen, on the other hand, argues that lower and working class males don't concern themselves with the goal of cultural goals. Other than the obvious of not concerning themselves with achieving this success, they would rather concern themselves with the fulfillment of making it to the higher societal class. The achievement of broader goals referred to the respect from the higher-ups in the financial success aspect of cultural goals. This was noted by Cohen to be crucial because of the difference in goals. It is said in the article that an individual can obtain financial riches through illegal activities such as theft, this is one of Merton's adaptations of innovation. An individual can't steal the status of a higher class, which makes perfect sense since it could lead to a huge consequence, which Cohen discusses throughout the article. The consequence is that the lower and working class often have to evolve to the goal blockade by making an alternative plan. This is how someone, an individual would gain their true success. This is also noted to be very much alike to Merton's adaptations of criminal behavior, in which was explained that these new goals and methods are basically being replaced for the previous goals instead of the new. From reading onward I made the connection that both the lower and working class share hostility towards the middle-class persons. The hostility leads them to set up a status quo that values everything that the apparent middle class doesn't concern itself with. Based on these very theories it is explained that the middle class values private property and respect for an individual. Now, this caught my attention because it made me question his theory. It's suggesting that lower and working class boys don't value such things. Also, in the theory, it gives an example of what I was questioning. The example that was given was that while gangs of some sorts value the destruction and theft of any property probably more towards private property and leading more towards aggression towards others. Cohen then goes onto the explanatory origins and contents of the criminal social group. After getting towards the end of the article it states the definite features of his hypothesis. Theorists have come to the main claim that the goals of criminal persons are not disagreeable to an idea of standard goals as Cohen has explained throughout his theory. Even though there has been a criticism the data shows and tends to often prove and support this argument. All of this information that was given by this theorist Cohen brings a fundamental contribution to criminal law. Anomie Theory Anomie theory is important for explaining whether crime is a normal or abnormal (pathological) social phenomenon (Cartwright, 2011). It describes a lack of social norms, lawlessness and normlessness (Cartwright, 2013). In detail, it is a breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community. This theory was first coined by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist in his book Suicide published in 1897 (Cartwright, 2013). Later on, Robert Merton, the President of American Sociological Association, developed the link between anomie and social structure. Unlike Durkheim, Merton used the notion from DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s anomie theory and explains that social structure could exert pressure on an individual and directly cause deviance (Cartwright, 2011). This theory is better known as the Anomie-Strain Theory. Furthermore, in 1994, Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld, like Merton, brought more attention to social organization and social institutions instead of focusing on individuals when analysing crimes (Cartwright, 2011), so the Institutional-Anomie Theory was developed. In order to understand the anomie theory better, the developments of this theory from Emile Durkheim to Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld should all be considered. For Emile Durkheim, his main concern about anomie was social solidarity (Cartwright, 2011). Based on this concern, he divided solidarity into two categories: mechanical solidarity, which maintains low adaptation skills; and to the contrary, organic solidarity whose inertia sensitively needs changes (Cartwright, 2013). Durkheim observed that these two groups would co-exist. The reason is that anomie is impossible when solidarity is organic. Their sensitivity to change leads to evolution among this form of labour. Later in 1897, Durkheim pointed out that the suicide rates were due to the dramatic economic changes, such as economic depression and the sudden growth of the economy (Cartwright, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"According to Durkheim, these periods of anomie Ã¢â¬âtimes of normlessness, lawlessness, and unregulated choice Ã¢â¬â made individuals more susceptible to committing suicide or engaging in deviant behaviourÃ¢â¬ (Cartwright, 2011, p. ). In this study, Durkheim associated anomie with the influence of a lack of the norms. In DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s study of anomie theory, two notions should not be neglected. Firstly, Emile Durkheim referred to society much like a functioning organism (Cartwright, 2011), evidence for the theory can be easily found in his referring to the society as Ã¢â¬Å"the social organismÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the functions of the central or ganÃ¢â¬ (Cartwright, 2011, p. 6). In order to maintain the continuation of the organism, each of the integrated parts has to be working well. Secondly, Durkheim discussed crime as an Ã¢â¬Å"abnormalÃ¢â¬ activity, which indicates that a certain proportion of crimes are normal and happens in most societies, (Cartwright, 2011). f in the steps of DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s study, Robert Merton described more about the relationship between social structure and anomie theory, later known as the anomie-strain theory. The definition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"strainÃ¢â¬ in the verb form means to subject to tension or stress. This meaning is very similar to the strain theory. The theory indicates that the social structure of a society may pressure or force the citizens to commit crimes, due to the failure to provide many individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ with Ã¢â¬Å"the conventional means necessary to realize those culture goalsÃ¢â¬ , which also means that the individual lacks access to cultural goals, such as money, job, or education (Merton, 1938). In MertonÃ¢â¬â¢s publication Social Structure and Anomie, he provides a good example that explains his theory. For example, in the USA, the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s general goal is wealth; therefore, in order to achieve this certain goal, the institutionalized manner is to be hard-working or obtaining education (Merton, 1938). Based on this theory, Merton identifies five modes of adaptation, including conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion (as cited in Cartwright, 2011, p. 21). According to Merton, innovators are most likely to engage in criminal behaviour, since they may accept the recognition of certain cultural goals but reject achieving the goals in a legitimate way (Merton, 1938). This illegitimacy adjustment as the major concern involves two features (Merton, 1938). Firstly, such antisocial behavior Ã¢â¬Å"by certain conventional values of the culture and by the class structure involving differential access to the approved opportunities for legitimate, prestige-bearing pursuit of the culture goalÃ¢â¬ (Merton, 1938, p. 27). Secondly, it is the consideration of equal significance. Because of the limitation of legitimate effort, for those individuals with formal education and few economic resources, success is hard to get (Merton, 1938). In addition, Merton declared that the theory he studied was incomplete, since various structural elements were neglected; for example, Ã¢â¬Å"the relevance of cultural conflict for an analysis of culture-goal and institutional-means malintegrationÃ¢â¬ has not yet been examined, and Ã¢â¬Å"the social function performed by illicit responsesÃ¢â¬ has also been omitted (Merton, 1938, p. 30). As for Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld (1995), their study, known as the institutional-anomie theory, focused more on how criminal behavior is affected institutionally, such as by schools, churchs or companies. Messner and Rosenfeld declared that criminology has overly focused on analyzing the behavior of individuals, such as mental illness, but paid less attention on how social organization and institutions influence the behaviour (Rosenfeld & Messner, 1995). Based on the comparison chart that Messner and Rosenfeld established in Crime and the American Dream: an Institutional Analysis, the statistic shows that the United States of America has the highest rates of robbery or homicide among a number of countries (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). The reason is due to Ã¢â¬Å"the crime causing nature of American-style capitalism and its unique cultural goals or aspirationÃ¢â¬ (Cartwright, 2011, p. 52). Messner and Rosenfield are also concerned about the normal functions of social institutions. The definition of Ã¢â¬Å"institutionsÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"relatively stable sets of norms and values, statuses and roles, and groups and organizationsÃ¢â¬ (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995, p, 60). At this point, Messner and Rosenfeld introduced four major social institutions: political system or polity, economy, institution of family and institution of education (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). Even though these four institutions may not seem directly relevant to crime; however, according to Messner and Rosenfeld, in order to analyse the crime in the United States, the interconnection between these four institutions are central (Messner & Rosenfeld, 1995). In this study, Messner and Rosenfeld (1995) also talked about the institutional balance of power. Due to the monetary need of every cooperation and institution, the economy Ã¢â¬Å"has come to dominate the other three institutionsÃ¢â¬ (Cartwright, 2011, p52). The devaluation of the economy has overcome the other three major institutions. At last, the dominance of the economy has developed to a very extreme level, and the monetary goals bring out the term Ã¢â¬Å"the ends justify the meansÃ¢â¬ (Cartwright, 2011, p, 52). As the development of anomie theory, from Emile Durkheim to Robert Merton to Messner and Rosenfeld, is discussed, the elements that tie these together is that they all try to figure out the reasons that cause criminal behavior and examines as to why crime happens. This also counts as a similarity between the three anomie theories. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Cheap CapitalismÃ¢â¬ written by Hongming Cheng, he characterized cheap capitalism by Ã¢â¬Å"low prices, inferior quality and unsafe condition of goods or services to maximize profitsÃ¢â¬ (Cheng, 2012, p, 254). Cheng also pointed out that the cheap capitalism is Ã¢â¬Å"facilitated by cheap labour and raw materials and, more importantly, associated with degraded morality in the business worldÃ¢â¬ (Cheng, 2012, p, 254). In my opinion, the article provides a good example of and explanation for crime in the non-capitalist countries, such as China. Cheng gives an example about food crime, which involves rampant institutions using cheap and dangerous industrial chemicals in foods (Cheng, 2012). One explanation will be that the food industries provides low-quality food to cheap labourers, since the poor working class cannot afford buying expensive but healthy food (Cheng, 2012). The case is related to the institutional-anomie theory studied by Messner and Rosenfeld (1995). One way to cause crime could be due to the social structure and social institutions. In the article, Cheng also provides a table of scales from 1 (not very important) to 4 (very important) that describes the factors that may lead to and influence the food crime. It turns out that social culture, moral and values got rated 3. 8 out of 4, followed by Ã¢â¬Å"lack of adequate enforcementÃ¢â¬ that got 3. 6 (Cheng, 2012). From this table, it shows that Ã¢â¬Å"moral anomie is a major factor that associated with food crimeÃ¢â¬ (Cheng, 2012, p, 265). From my perspective, the institutional-anomie theory is connected to this case the most. In conclusion, the development of anomie theory, from Emile Durkheim to Messner and Rosenfeld, provides brilliant ideas and thoughts that explain crime thoroughly. The evidence that supports their theory is solid and valid. Based on this, it makes the theory complete and reasonable.