Sunday, December 29, 2019

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Essay - 925 Words

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) One of the leading causes of mental retardation in the United States is fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by pregnant women because its legal and socially acceptable. A greater majority of young women are not aware of the complications that are involved with pregnancy. They see pregnancy as a way of bringing a life into the world but do not use the necessary safety measure in their dietary habits to prevent such damage or inhibitions of such a life. By continuing on their drinking binge throughout their pregnancy, they can cause an inexplicable damage to herself and the fetus she is carrying. In my opinion, any amount of alcohol combined with pregnancy can cause†¦show more content†¦quot;We report here on an innovative method that assessed drink size without reliance on research subjects judgment of the number of ounces in their usual drinks, instead employing vessel models to enable research participants to indicate their drink siz es, for a period prior to knowing they were pregnantquot; (Kaskutas amp; Graves, 2001). nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The subjects for this research were 221 women, mostly living in urban areas. 70 of them were Native Americans, 129 were African Americans and 22 were Caucasians. These women were drawn July 1996-97 from prenatal clinics, general health clinics and women-infant-children clinics in Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay area. These women were asked how much did they drink across beverage types (quot;graduated frequencyquot; across beverages) and how big those drinks were (Respondent-defined drink sizes, by beverage). The self-defined size that the women drank is then compared to the standard size for that beverage. Through a series of calculations, Kaskutas amp; Graves figured out the amount of over- or under-reporting that is engendered by assuming respondents convert their actual drink sizes into requested standard drink sizes for beer, wine and spirits, and into ethanol-equivalent standard drink sizes for malt liquor, wine coolers and fortified wine (2001). Wilco xons non-parametric statistical procedure wasShow MoreRelatedFetal Alcohol Syndrome ( Fas )1404 Words   |  6 Pagesdisorders is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). According to Feldman (2009), Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a disorder that is induced by pregnant women who have consumed alcohol during the duration of their pregnancy, possibly resulting in mental deformity and delayed the growth of the child. Some characteristics of FAS include growth deficiency and central nervous system dysfunction (Mattson, 2006). Although the child may not be diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, if the child was exposed to alcohol duringRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS Essay2732 Words   |  11 PagesCould you ever imagine feeding your infant alcohol through a bottle? This is equivalent to what alcohol does to the fetus in the womb. This results in a tragic disease known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Alcohol can affect a human body in many different ways. Alcohol can be the highlight of a party and ma ke anything exciting, but also can seriously alter human life. It’s quite often that we see on the news another victim dead, or in critical condition because their signs and symptoms were loud enoughRead MorePrenatal Alcohol During Pregnancy Results Of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ( Fas )1497 Words   |  6 Pagesprenatal ethanol exposure. Alcohol. 2013; 47 (2): 109-120. Introduction Consuming alcohol during pregnancy results in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The spectrum of FAS ranges from barely detectable to severe functional and cognitive birth defects. In the United States approximately 9.1 out of 1,000 live births exhibit some degree of FAS spectrum. Although excessive consumption of alcohol is considered a human teratogen the biochemical mechanism and the developmental origins FAS spectrum remain unclearRead MoreEssay on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome1390 Words   |  6 Pagesin this essay is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS); caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Since the alcohol is consumed in such a developing stage of the fetus, it can potentially cause many different complications in the unborn child. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome could easily be prevented with more awareness to the issue and its defining characteristics, how it affects the fetus during growth, and finally the long-term effects on the individual’s life. The science behind FAS will be explainedRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome Essay1699 Words   |  7 PagesFetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a condition affecting children born to women who drink heavily during pregnancy. There are three criteria used to describe the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and to make a diagnosis of FAS. The first of these is a pattern of facial anomalies, these features include: #61558; Small eye openings #61558; Flat cheekbones #61558; Flattened groove between nose and upper lip #61558; Thin upper lip These characteristicsRead MoreThe Disorder Of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome1018 Words   |  5 Pagesthe the disorder Fetal Alcohol Syndrome .This paper will aim to discuss what the disorder is ,it s history how it is diagnosed and the treatment and prevention of this disorder. Taking a sip a int hip Introduction :Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing(Bible-Judges 13:7).It has been known throughout history that the effects of alcohol use in pregnancyRead MoreThe Truth About What Alcohol Abuse Does to a Fetus1118 Words   |  5 PagesThe Truth About Fetal Alcohol Abuse Would you have ever thought of physically, mentally, and/or emotionally harming an unborn child? In the 1990s people have noted the significant impact alcohol-related birth defects are having on our society then and now. My essay will discuss alcohol consumption among pregnant women and its adverse effects on fetal development. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or FAS is physical and mental health problem that destroys a childs learning development.Read MoreThe Effects of Alcohol from Utero into Later Life600 Words   |  3 PagesThe Effects of Alcohol from Utero into Later Life During the ten months of gestation, the ever-growing fetus goes through the stages and changes of becoming a functional human. Unfortunately for some, these children will not get the full advantages of life because of the choices of another. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been calculated to have an impact on nearly forty thousand infants a year (fasdcenter). To really see the magnitude of the effects of this easily preventable disorder, researchersRead MoreFetal Alcohol Syndrome942 Words   |  4 Pages Fetal Alcohol Syndrome According to Seaver, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is birth defects causing learning, and behavioral problems in individuals whose mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy. This disorder is very serious, yet it is recognized as one of the most preventable. This causes major issues, when something so serious could be prevented but is not. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a problem because it leaves a permanent effect on the unborn child, but some solutions could be educating women andRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol During Pregnancy On Children1041 Words   |  5 PagesAlcohol is a TERATOGEN, meaning that it will cause developmental damage to a FETUS or EMBRYO. The degree to which a TERATOGEN wreaks havoc on an unborn child largely depends on four factors: dosage, heredity, age, and additional negative factors. The most vulnerable prenatal period is during the stage of embryonic development, which occurs between the third and eighth weeks of pregnancy. Once alcohol penetrates the PLACENTA an d enters the fetal bloodstream it hinders the neurons inside the child’s

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Death Of Salesman By F. Scott Fitzgerald - 1515 Words

Life should be considered a light bulb. The moment a human enters the world. the light bulb turns on, and the light is bright; however, if the light bulb becomes less bright, it symbolizes a human being looking only at the past or present—instead of looking forward to the future. John Fitzgerald Kennedy once said, â€Å"Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.† In the play Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller, the protagonist Willy Loman is depicted as a man who has failed in life; he spent most of his life reminiscing the past. This affected his life greatly, especially his relationship with his son, Biff Loman. Nevertheless, in the novel, The Great Gatsby by Francis Scott Fitzgerald, the protagonist, Jay Gatsby undergoes a major change in life; he goes from being a poor man to West Egg’s richest man. Gatsby believes that his wealth would help him get the love of his life back—Daisy Buchanan. In this paper, the Marxist theory will be used to describe how the idea of achieving the American Dream lead to the deaths of Willy Loman and Jay Gatsby—their corrupt versions of the American Dream. Nonetheless, this analysis will give the readers the opportunity to learn that in life, one should not live in the past, especially since it prevents one from living a successful and hopeful future—the brightness of one’s lightbulb. The play Death of a Salesman is a play that depicts vital Marxist ideas, as well as beliefs. WhileShow MoreRelatedThe Death Of A Salesman By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay1100 Words   |  5 Pagesimpact? In F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel The Great Gatsby, is one extraordinary novel that he wrote in 1925. F.Scott Fitzgerald s novel takes place in 1920’s and takes part of the 1st World War. It is written about a young man named Nick, he moved to west egg to take a new life occupation on the bond business. He ends up being neighbors with a mysterious man named Gatsby who ends up giving him an interesting aspect of his life. Similar to Biff in the Death Of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. The Death of aRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By F. Scott Fitzgerald2062 Words   |  9 Pagestasks purpose. Dreams, however, are not always beneficial. They can often, like in these works, be build on nonrealistic ideals, which drive characters in the wrong direction and lead to self distruction. Bot h F. Scott Fitzgerald through The Great Gatsby and Arthur Miller through Death of a Salesman use these misshapen dreams and visions of the future to describe their characters, build toward their downfalls or dramatic turning points, and to create a theme of the crushing power of broken dreams. WillyRead MoreMen and Their Music in Death of a Salesman by F. Scott Fitzgerald1085 Words   |  4 Pages Describing auditory sensations in text is often very difficult. Nevertheless, Arthur Miller in his play Death of a Salesman and F. Scott Fitzgerald in his novel The Great Gatsby. Music is a very useful method of communicating in prose because it can give off a sensation to the reader that mere text or dialogue cannot. Although the authors use drastically different types of music, one using popular music and the other using solo instrumental music, both authors are very effective. The authors useRead MoreThe American Dream By F. Scott Fitzgerald And Death Of A Salesman Essay1391 Words   |  6 PagesTruslow Adams once wrote, â€Å"The American Dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. In both The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, the main characters search for the achievement of the American dream in themselves and the worl d around them. While the American dream is defined differently for the main characters in each novel, both Willy LomanRead MoreComparing The Death Of A Salesman And The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1259 Words   |  6 Pages English Essay: Compare and contrast After reading The Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, it is clear that there are associations that can be made between the two novels. There are many ways in which the life of Willy Loman compares or contrasts with the life of Jay Gatsby. The most obvious and simplest comparison is their pursuit of the American Dream which leads to their ultimate downfall. Although, Willy and Gatsby contrast in theRead MoreThe American Dream in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1096 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Dream in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald In a majority of literature written in the 20th century, the theme of the American Dream has been a prevalent theme. This dream affects the plot and characters of many novels, and in some books, the intent of the author is to illustrate the reality of the American Dream. However, there is no one definition of the American Dream. Is it the right to pursue your hearts wish,Read MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1684 Words   |  7 PagesAn inability to be at peace with oneself is a defining connection between the central characters of The Great Gatsby, a timeless classic written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, set in a hedonistic summer of 1922 America, and Death of a Salesman, written by American playwright Arthur Miller set in 1949 America. The characterisation of both Willy and Gatsby illustrate that they have similarities, in a way that are considered destitute, with imperfect ethical conduct. To a certain extent both protagonists haveRead MoreEssay On The American Dream In The Great Gatsby1652 Words   |  7 Pagesthe two novels, The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Death of a Salesman, by Arthur Miller. Both of the main characters in these novels had a specific dream and they based their entire lives off of these dreams. T he main characters from each novel, Gatsby and Willy, spend their entire lives fighting to achieve their goals and struggle with a multitude of different issues along the way. In The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, the American DreamRead MoreFailure Of The American Dream In The Writings Of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Zora Neale Hurston, And August Wilson1418 Words   |  6 Pagesfailure of the †American Dream† in the writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Arthur Miller, Zora Neale Hurston, and August Wilson. Fitzgerald’s account of the Jay Gatsby s rise to fame in the 1920s defines the failure of financial success as part of the American Dream. Gatsby will eventually die due to his excessive greed, which is not unlike the emotional death of Willy Loman as he fails to become a successful salesman in Author Miller’s Death of a Salesman. More so, Hurston’s depiction of Nanny’s own failuresRead MoreEssay about Great Gatsby862 Words   |  4 Pages F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby / Gatsbys Desire for Daisy exploring why Gatsby had such an obsessive desire for Daisy. The writer purports that Gatsby began by pursuing an ideal, not the real woman. In fact, he could not recognize the type of person she had become since they last saw each other. Gatsby lives in a dream world and Daisy is part of that dream. As the novel progresses, however, Gatsbys feelings change. Bibliography lists Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby : The Role

Friday, December 13, 2019

American Promotionalism Free Essays

Emergence of United States of America itself was an epitome of certain ideological expressions i. e. liberty, fraternity, equality etc but American progress in the political, social, economic and technological domains capacitated the American spirit to devise the new ideological patterns and modify the existing ones. We will write a custom essay sample on American Promotionalism or any similar topic only for you Order Now The socio-economic growth of 19th century produced a phenomenon of liberal-developmentalism that contains the entire major thematic expressions of American ideology. This liberal-developmentalism ideology was a combination of American beliefs in their cherished ideals and these liberal beliefs were further augmented by the American historical experience of extraordinary triumphs in the in the socio-economic sectors. All these factors compelled the Americans to assume that their socio-economic model was of universal in nature and must be replicated at the universal level. So this ideology together with economic compulsions and mass production set an impetus to export the American dream to other geographical locations. The most widespread concern for American foreign policymakers remain that America has a peculiar destiny and that destiny must be expanded universally. So this ideological underpinning found its expression in the strategic and operational mechanisms of American foreign policies during the last decade of 19th century and first half of the 20th century. The culmination of World War II was the America was successful in inculcating their cherished ideals of democracy, capitalism, free trade etc. in the new world order. Major tenets of American ideology: Emily S. Rosenberg (1982) has recognized five underlying principle of the Liberal-Developmentalism ideology that emerged in the last half of 19th century. According to him, these major traits are; (1) belief that other nations could and should replicate America’s own developmental experience; (2) faith in private free enterprise;(3) support for free and open access for trade and investment; (4) promotion of free flow of information and culture and (5) growing acceptance of governmental activity to protect private enterprise and to stimulate and regulate American participation in international economic and cultural exchange. (p. 7) These major tenets of American ideology were inculcated in the spirit and operation of each American foreign policy move. Whether it is annexation of Philippines or colonization of Cuba, these ideological parameters were at the helm of the affairs. Furthermore, this American mission to extend and export these ideological patterns universally worked under two motives. Religious zeal to spread the American version of Christianity with basic features of American socio-economic standards worked closely with secular and liberal intelligentsia. Evangelical sectors of American life thought that Christianity was a prerequisite for modernization. So missionaries spread American ideals to different parts of the world. Secular sections of American intelligentsia were of the view that national advancements and global progress are the manifestation of a single dream i. e. to propagate American ideology. Rosenberg (1982) asserts that it was the â€Å"economic needs, Anglo-Saxon mission, and the progressive impulse† that worked together with government endeavor to set an expansionist agenda and one of the motives for these designs was the spread of American ideology worldwide. Although there were differences over the question how to propagate Americanization but all these seems converging on a single point that means do not matter and it is all about ends i. e. universalizing the American values. (Hunt, 1987) Acquisition of Philippines; Acquisition of Philippines in the later part of 1890s generated much controversy across America over the issue. The nation was divided into two opposing groups i. e. imperialists and anti-imperialists. The imperialists favored the annexation due to their worldview based on ground realties and practical necessities while anti-imperialists preferred to base their stand on idealistic and nostalgic views of mythic American past. Imperialist was of the view that in the changing world scenario, America should change it isolationist agenda and must assess its strength against the imperial powers of Europe in the international arena. The spirit of Manifest Destiny subsisted, and imperialists hankered after to expand the American authority and influence overseas. Their international view was further reinforced by the political, economic and strategic necessities. The anti-imperialists considered the annexation Philippines as an apparent violation of cherished American ideals and political traditions. The imperialist viewpoint can be located by having an in-depth look at the ideas and worldviews of â€Å"the five who created the first genuine American imperialism† i. e. John Hay, secretary of state under McKinley and Roosevelt, Alfred T. Mahan, a naval officer and military analyst; Elihu Root, secretary of war under McKinley and Roosevelt, and was responsible for the management of the Philippines and Cuba; Henry Cabot Lodge, the conniving senator from Massachusetts, and Theodore Roosevelt. (Zimmermann X) These paragons of American imperialism considered that in the changing international political scenario, America should not reside in a policy of isolation but must establish its foothold on various strategically important locations. The ultimate goal of this policy might not be territorial gains but it should be strategic monopoly of the international politics and commerce. They further reinforced the idea that it is a defining moment in the way America is linked to the world. It will provide â€Å"Americans and their leaders self-confidence, a sense of their own power, and an abiding belief that they could shape international life according to their values. † (Zimmerman I) In addition to these broad concerns, economic gains through the annexation of Philippines further shaped the worldview of the imperialists. President was moved by the â€Å"touchstone of Asian trade† (RTAP 52) and economic motives served a proper background for President McKinley’s resolution to annex the islands. â€Å"His [McKinley’s] object was not a colonial empire but the minimum territory needed to obtain conquest of world markets, along with taking of strategic points necessary to protect the conquest. † (RTAP 52) Acting secretary of States William R. Day and Massachusetts’ Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge considered that the surpluses produced by American factories require huge markets especially China. They were further influenced by Brooks Adams theory of center of money exchanges with a conception that now United States is in a position to capture the world economy and rule it. Brooks Adam further said, â€Å"We must have new markets unless we would be visited by declines in wages and by great industrial disturbances, of which signs have not been lacking. The old theory of competing in foreign markets merely by the price of production is no longer predictable. † So a â€Å"navy, coaling stations and ports in the East†¦have become essential condition in our times† (RTAP 53) Beside the expansionist design and economic necessities, another factor that contributed to hold the entire archipelago under America was military necessity. After attaining military victories in the islands, it was inappropriate to vacate it for other powers to fight over it. It was a commonly held belief among imperialist that by placing â€Å"A protectorate seemed unsuitable, since it would place heavy duties on the United States without supplying enough authority to carry them out† and â€Å"Most American believed that freeing the islands would result in internal chaos followed by a German, British, or Japanese takeover†¦No country made a serious attempt to deny the Philippines to United States, but at least four might have collided headlong if Washington turned them loose†¦. †(RTAP 48) The anti-imperialist worldview was based on sentimental and traditional values of the past. Mostly, it was comprised of ethical and moral issues, America’s anti-colonial origin and past, its democratic traditions and cherished ideals of liberty and freedom. This altruistic viewpoint was further founded in the fear that these imperialist practices would erode the traditional political fabric of America and would violate the cherished American ideals. Yet for all their passion, the enemies of the new imperialism seemed old-fashioned and out of touch. They looked back to a mythic American past, while Roosevelt and his friends laid claim to a bountiful future†¦the anti-imperialists were on the losing end of historical change. (Zimmermann VIII) Additionally, anti-imperialists American worldview was molded by humanitarian and racial issues and anti-imperialists denounced that like African American, the Filipinos would be treated the same way and would be negated the basic human rights provisions. This perspective was further supported by feminist stance that identified Filipinos as the American women â€Å"who are governed without their consent† (RTAP 55) Some racial views suggested that assimilation of Philippines Eastern society would harm the social fabric of American society and would have negative effects on the future prospects of American social development. The imperialist position was based on concrete ground realities. Their basic agenda was expansionism or â€Å"Americanism (as Roosevelt put it) but it also included the latent political, economic and strategic advantages for America whereas anti-imperialist worldview was grounded in outmoded idealism of the past. Imperialist viewpoint had more practical and beneficial motivation to annex Philippines as Republican Senator Lodge said in the senate, â€Å"the enormous material benefits to our trade, our industries, and our labor dependant upon a right settlement of this question† (RTAP 54) Due this imperialist worldview, since 1898, America’s role in the world changed forever. A country that had restricted her power and influence to the western hemisphere suddenly obtained a â€Å"global reach that it would never relinquish† (Zimmerman I) This clearly manifested that American annexation of Philippines were motivated by a combination of various factor in which economic necessities and spreading of American dream i. e. to Americanize the peninsula were the chief objectives. Spanish-American War: Spanish-American was another important geo-strategic enterprise that marked the emergence of U. S. as an important international player. Though war marked the beginning of American Imperialism, but war itself was not caused by the imperialist or expansionist designs of Americans. † The war†, as Prof. Blum puts it, â€Å"grew out of the deplorable conditions in Cuba and seems intolerable to an aroused popular sentiments in the United States. †(Blum, p. 502) Another reno3wned historian Samuel Morison consider this exercise a totally emotional enterprise and says, â€Å"no war was ever more or emotional and less economic in motives† (Morison, 1982. p. 801) But his assertion on another occasion seems appropriate as it depicts that American exercise was purely based on their cherished ideals of democracy and liberty. He says, â€Å"This was a closer and more personal war to Americans than either world war; and was their own little war for liberty and democracy against all that tyrannical, treacherous, and fetid in the Old World†. (p. 802) America found an apt time and place to exercise their ideological patterns. At last the nation distinguished manifested itself as a major world power and tried to play a vital role in the broad international arrangements for the fist time. It consciously became one of the tutors of the backward nation. Under such pro-consuls as General Leonard Wood, it tried to implant their own ideology in Cuban soil and undertook huge task of psychological and material reformation, reorganizations and development in Cuba. Rosenberg says that General Wood â€Å"vowed to create a polity ‘molded closely upon lines of our great Republic. ’ Wood brought in a host of experts to reshape Cuba. Americans assumed direction of customhouses (the major source of government revenue), controlled the country’s finances, organized a postal service, established telephone and telegraphic lines, encouraged railroads and shipping facilities, built road, carried out sanitation projects†¦established schools†¦and invited New York City Police to organize their counterparts in Havana. † (p. 46) All these measures were intended to Americanize the socio-cultural and economic spheres, both at the ideological and material levels. Rosenberg further says that â€Å"Cuba thus became a laboratory for methods of influence that fell short of outright colonialism†. (p. 47) But history manifested that outright colonialism and subjugation of other nation is an outdated phenomenon. Furthermore, direct colonialization and annexation produced resentment and sentiments of hatred among the dominated nation. So it was a not a suitable mechanism to spread the American dreams and its various ideological expressions. So American spirit for exporting their cherished ideals devised new means to have control on the other geographical territories and to mold their society on American pattern. One of such mechanisms was Howard Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy. Taft wad enthusiastic about the military preparedness as his predecessor Roosevelt was. He therefore used the level of American investments to boost American diplomacy. Fearing the designs of Japan in China, Taft believed that if not checked Japan would not only seize the entire North China but also freeze out American trade in the Far East. Consequently, he supported the construction of American financed railroads in Manchuria with a view to checkmate the Japanese and to preserve the ‘Open Door’ in China. He encouraged the bankers to invest their surplus in foreign areas of strategic importance to the United States, especially in the Far East and the regions that might menace the Panama Canal. He feared hat if the American investors would not come forward, investors from rival powers like Germany would make the necessary investments and gain control over the seas. But as the American capital have never been interested in making investments in Manchuria, the State Department even brought pressure on the reluctant banks to invest in this region. This new policy of Dollar diplomacy that substituted dollars for bullets was complete violation of the liberal ideological tenets of freedom of investment. Furthermore this dollar diplomacy was prompted by strategic and imperialist concerns i. e. to check the rapidly growing power of Japan in China instead of promotional objectives. (Nearing and Freeman, 1925) This clearly manifest that sometime during the period 1890-1945, some strategic and defense objective overweighed the higher objective of spreading American ideology abroad and creating a new socio-economic world milieu based on American ideals. Post World War I Foreign policy and it correlation with Nationalist ideology; A case Study of Germany: During World War I, United States was deeply involved in the affairs of the world and allied won he victory mainly due to the support of men, money and materials they got from United States. But after the war ended, most of the American people started feeling that it was folly on their part to have entered the war because in return for what America gave to the allies, she received nothing. Consequently there was a rethinking about the foreign policy. In the meanwhile Republicans came to power in America and enunciated a new policy. Harding, the Republican President said about the new foreign policy; â€Å"We seek no part in directing the destinies of the world†¦we are ready to associate ourselves with the nations of the world, great and small, for conference and counsel, for suggestions of mediations, conciliation and arbitration; but every commitment must be made in the exercise of our national sovereignty. † (Harding, 1923) It would be wrong to attribute this policy of United States as a policy of isolationism or diversion from the American mission of promoting their national ideology abroad. It can more appropriately be described as the policy of ‘cooperation without entangling alliances. ’ This was due to the fact that new subtle and profound international mechanisms were available that can capacitate America to act as a promotional state. A South American writer, Manuel Ugarte has identified the change in American policy in these words; â€Å"The United States†¦ inaugurated the system of annexing wealth, apart from inhabitants or territories, disdaining outward shows in order to arrive at the essentials of domination without a dead-weight of areas to administrate and multitudes to govern†¦ (Manuel Ugarte, 1923). Economic activity was one such subtle mechanism that enabled America to spread its ideology of free trade and capitalistic mode of world commercial activity. Peace was an ultimate requirement for this mechanism to work. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover speech about the American economic activity as a tool of American foreign policy provides an important assessment abut the directions pf American foreign policy. â€Å"By contributing to peace and economic stability, by the loan of our surplus savings abroad for productive purposes, by the spread f interventions over the world, we can contribute to the elevation of standards of living in foreign countries in their relations to each other. (U. S Department of Commerce, 1926) At the time of assuming office as president, Harding announced that the league issue was â€Å"dead as slavery† and his administration would not lead United States into the League of Nations â€Å"by the side door, back door or cellar door†. Yet in spite of these pronouncements Hardinge as well as Coolidge were compelled to involve their country more deeply into the world arena than ever before. But this time their involvement was on a more subtle and economic level. The first such involvement was in the affairs of Europe when it concluded a peace treaty with Germany. As United States has failed to ratify the treaty of Versailles, she was legally speaking still at war with Germany. In July 1921, Congress passed a resolution by which peace was declared. By this treaty America showed its willingness to pay for the German property seized during the war. This was a subtle move as leaving Germany in a state of devastation would had resulted in bad consequences for America and its ideological and strategic objectives in the region. Bolshevik Russia was a logical choice for Germany if American would have created a vacuum. This meant that instead of ideals of liberalism, democracy and free trade, socialism and close-economy would had have encircled the German economy and socio-cultural life. Frank Costigliola (1984) says in this regard; Pacifying and rebuilding Germany was integral to containing the Bolshevik revolution†¦ Bolshevik Russia represented both a symbolic and a substantive threat to the peaceful change alternative. Most American leaders viewed the Soviet Union as revolution incarnate, despite Moscow’s caution and conservatism. If Germany’s political and economic structure collapsed, its people, American feared, might in desperation forged a Russian alliance to overthrow both Versailles and capitalism. Their very opposition to revolution led Hoover, Hughes, and other American leaders to combat the French policy of rigidly enforcing Versailles, which would only build up pressures for change†¦ (p. 96) So resolution of conflicts with Germany, provision of financial, technological and material help to uplift the German socio-economic spheres were imperative for Americans. Although these were motivated by certain strategic and political goals but ideological consideration acted as underlying theme in the whole process. This is the reason that Hughes appealed to private experts and economists to come with new strategies and theoretical framework to help Germany in its economic turmoil. Export of popular American culture through various means also helped America to spread its influences and ideology abroad. One manifestation of this soft power i. e. American culture was its film industry. It helped greatly to promote the American ideology abroad and also had effect on trade. Edward G. Lowry as early as 1925 recognized â€Å"this new factor in the international relationships that has caused the flutter† (Lowry, 1925. p. 12) Costigliola is of the view that war weary generation of the West looked toward technologically advanced America for cultural models and America offered â€Å"its own institutions and values, or what contemporaries termed Americanism† (p. 98) America colonized the European through their soft power especially Films and tried to inculcate their own ideological patterns in the spirit and minds of Europeans. All these evidence and arguments clearly manifest that although American foreign relation was marked with political necessities and economic concerns but ideological underpinning remained an ultimate objective. The political and economic inevitabilities were also manifestation of these ideological underpinnings For example, to influence free trade was a material expression of liberalism that originated from public-private partnership in the American history. American concerns in Philippines, Cuba and post World War I apprehensions in Germany was al amalgam of ideological requirement with geo-strategic obligations but it is also a fact that Dollar Diplomacy in Taft’s era in China was solely motivated by political needs. But all these method, use of military and non-military means, acquisition of territories, participation in world economic markets, internationalization of American culture, disarmaments agreement, all were to construct a new world order according to American ideological patterns. South American writer, Manuel Ugarte has rightly summed up the whole phenomenon in these words; The flexibility of North American imperialism in its external activities, and the diverse forms which it adopts according to the circumstances, the racial composition and social conditions of the people upon which its action is exercised, is one of the most significant phenomenon of this century;†¦(p. 139) References Blum, John Morton. The National Experience. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1985. Connor, William P. United States annexation of the Philippines: a reinterpretation. [Kingston] University of Rhode Island. 1972 Edward G. Lowry. Trade Follows the Film. Saturday Evening Post. 198. (November, 1925) 12-13. Frank Costigliola. U. S. Cultural Exapsion in an Era of Systematic Upheaval in Major Problems in American Foreign: documents and essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000. Harding, Warren G. Inaugural Address. (March 4, 1921) available at Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Websitewww. yale. edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/harding. htm Hughes. Debt and German Reparations: Hughes Calls on Private Experts for Help, 1922 in Major Problems in American Foreign Relations. Hunt, Michael. Ideology and U. S. Foreign Policy. Yale University Press; 1988. Manuel Ugarte. The Destiny of a Continent. Catherine A. Phillips (tr. ). New York. Knopf. 1925. Merrill, Dennis Paterson, Thomas G. Major problems in American foreign relations: documents and essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000. Morison, Samuel E. The Oxford History of American People. New York, Oxford University Press. 1965. Nearing, Scott Freeman, Joseph. Dollar diplomacy; a study in American imperialism. New York, B. W. Huebsch and the Viking Press. 1925. Rosenberg, Emily S. Foner, Eric. Spreading the American Dream. New York : Hill and Wang, 1982. U. S. Department of Commerce. in Major Problems in American Foreign: documents and essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000. Volker, Karren Zola, Jaye. The annexation of the Philippines, Denver, CO : Center for Teaching International Relations, 1999. Zimmermann,Warren. â€Å"Jingoes, goo-goos, and the rise of America’s empire. † The Wilson Quarterly 22. Spring 1998. How to cite American Promotionalism, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

THE BASICS PARTS Essay Example For Students

THE BASICS PARTS Essay An organization it is composed by an operating core and an administrative component made up by managers (strategic apex and middle line) and analysts (deconstructed? and staff), partially responsible for their work. The strategic apex is composed by people having overall responsibility for the organization; they have the widest perspective of the organization. In Nikkei, the Board, Vichy is elected by shareholders, is the ultimate decision- making body of the Company, excluding to those issues reserved to the shareholders. The Board is also in charged for reviewing and establishing procedures in relation to ensure that the Company management and employees Who work in a legal and ethically responsible way. Recently, the Board has had be,even 10 to 14 directors, this size allows diversity of experience Without slowing individual accountability and effective discussion. In relation to the operating core which is composed by the people doing the key work, in Nikkei there are more than 800,000 employees in 46 countries all around the world. This workforce is at the same time distributed in the approximately 00 contract factories where the 3 brands principal products (footwear, apparel and equipment) are fabricated. The middle line is composed by the people who occupy the managerial post, in the firm we are analyzing this is formed by the USBI (Sustainable Business and Innovation), this team is made up of about 130 people who work closely with dedicated sustainability specialists who are integrated into other parts of the organization, such as retail, logistics and information technology. Its focal point is to permit IN EKE, Inc. o prosper in an efficient economy they do this through a atria structure, with defined priorities for each team. The USB function reports to the vice president of Sustainable Business and Innovation, who reports directly to the NIKKEI, Inc. CEO and to the Corporate Responsibility Committee of the Board Of Directors. The deconstructive.